Welcome to the PSRS website
--select an option--
Will be attending
Will be attending
Judges Image round
Judges iPoster round
Judges PGT Image round
Judges Poster round
Will be attending
Judges Image round
Judges iPoster round
Judges PGT Image round
Judges Poster round
Will be attending
Judges Image round
Judges iPoster round
Judges PGT Image round
Judges Poster round
Will be attending
Will be attending
Will be attending
Will be attending
Will be attending
University of Manchester
Postdoctoral research associate
Postgraduate research student
Postgraduate taught student
Arts - Fashion, film, literature and creative writing, music, performance, theatre, visual arts
Business and management - Finance, leisure and tourism, property and construction, retail and consumerism
Cardiovascular and respiratory sciences
Cell and developmental biology
Chemistry - Inorganic, Physical
Chemistry - Organic, Biochemistry
Computer sciences - Computer modelling
Cultural studies - Identity, migration and mobility, post-colonialism, race and ethnicity
Earth sciences - Environmental studies, physical geography, weather and climate
Economics - Political economy, game theory, finance
Energy - Renewable energy sources, energy efficiency
Engineering - Chemical, Materials
Engineering - Civil
Engineering - Mechanical
Evolution and genetics
Food - Food production, nutrition, food shortages, diet and consumption
Gender and sexuality
Human geography - Socio-economic development, urban planning, migration and mobility
Human physiology & mental health
Imaging and microscopy
Language and linguistics - Classical languages, modern languages, translation, cross-cultural communication
Materials - Composites, Metals, Semiconductors, Ceramics
Materials - Polymers, Biomaterials
Mathematics - Mathematical modelling, statistics
Media and communication - Citizen media, digital media, social media, film and television studies, journalism
Museums, archives and libraries
Nursing - Midwifery, patient care
Pathology - Immunology and treatment, inflammation and repair
Pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences - Pharmacology, microbiology, nanotechnology, pharmacy practice
Philosophy and ethics
Physics - Astrophysics, quantum physics, mechanics, theoretical physics, condensed matter physics
Politics and political sciences - political economy
Religion and theology - Belief systems
Sociology - Social change, social statistics
Sustainability - Energy and resource management
Systems and networking
War and terrorism
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health
Faculty of Humanities
Faculty of Science and Engineering
School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science
School of Chemistry
School of Computer Science
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
School of Materials
School of Mathematics
School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering
School of Physics and Astronomy
School of Biological Sciences
School of Health Sciences
School of Medical Sciences
Alliance Manchester Business School
School of Arts, Languages and Cultures
School of Environment, Education and Development
School of Law
School of Social Sciences
Performance Testing of Protection Relays based on IEC 61850 and RTDS tools for suitability of Future UK Power Networks
: Understanding Type One Diabetes Self-Care Management among Adolescents and their Parents in Jordan – A qualitative study.
speaking the same language: comparing the communication profile of females and males with autism
Marking Migration: Graffiti at Ellis Island immigration station, c.1900-1914
Towards the Machine Reading of Arabic Calligraphy: A Letters Dataset and Corresponding Corpus of Text
Fault Location on Transmission Feeders Using Travelling Waves, Transients and Power Frequency Signal
Connecting policy with the personal
ExPRESSing his symptoms: a smart way to spot schizophrenia relapse
Calibration of BTT data against FEM predictions
Placental and yolk sac growth is reduced and associated with altered system L amino acid transporter gene expression in a rat model of maternal immune activation
Nuclear Fission - The Dramatic Break-Up
Customer Feedback Analytics for Predicting Churn
Deep-water sediments influenced by salt topography: examples from the Basque County and the North Sea.
Literature, dialects and the translator: Descriptive explanatory approach for the study of literary Dialectal dialogue in Saudi and Egyptian novels
Formulation of a novel 3D Amyloid-β delivery system for modelling Alzheimer’s disease
Using machine learning to explore important features of genes associated with both heritable and somatic disease
Natural Hydrological Adaptive Capacity of Coastal Wetlands
Implications of gene and genome duplications on the expansion and evolution of the GPCR signalling pathway
Investigation of Anomolous Hydrogen Production from Water Adsorbed to Metal Oxide Surfaces
Characterizing mass-resolved mixing state of black carbon in Beijing using morphology-independent measurement method
The profile and burden of caregiving life partners of people with Parkinson's-related dementia
Getting a Feel for Sustainable Fashion
Investigation of Elastic Follow-Up under High Temperature Creeping Conditions
Optimization of large scale antenna arrays
Next Generation Graphene Based Wearable E-textile
Design and Construction of a Modular Multilevel Converter
Experimental Model for Functional Evaluation of the Effects of Electrical Stimulation on Cell Monolayers
Developing a Stem Cell Therapy for Ischaemic Stroke
Social Media Marketing on Twitter: A study of the characteristics of brand-originated posts as drivers of sharing behaviour on Twitter
In situ synchrotron imaging of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V
Graphene Oxide inhibits production of interleukin-1β
Establishing VRAC as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Alzheimer's Disease
Artificial Wombs and Viability: how do artificial wombs differ from current treatment for premature neonates?
Identifying endosomal cargoes that drive ovarian cancer invasion
Development of a prototype spectrophotometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter for measurements of total column ozone
Novel Partial Power Flow Solver for Multi – Terminal HVDC control
'Aye' or 'No'? Speech-level sentiment analysis of Hansard UK parliamentary debate transcripts
FRBs with MeerTRAP - location location location
Radiolytic Recombination of H2, O2 and N2 over PuO2 and ceramic oxide surrogates
Optimisation of Fuel Cell Gas Diffusion Layers using Ordered Microstructural Design
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair and Regeneration with Protein-Functionalised Scaffolds
Validating ex vivo retinal culture as a method of developing optogenetics therapies
Interaction of molybdenum with hematite and magnetite
'Left behind' places and political discontent
Commonly used propensity score diagnostics can be misleading: A simulation study
Microbial Degradation of Organic Decontamination Residues in Low Radioactive Level Waste
Understanding Basaltic Plinian Eruptions: Developing a Numerical Model to Investigate Key Volcanic Processes
on the length of orbits on k-subsets of PSL(2,q)
Polyhedral representation of dataflow programs
The Influence of Psychosocial Stress on Memory and the Brain: A Multi-Approach Meta-Analysis
Proton Beam Radiolysis of High Temperature Water
A FIBROUS ENTANGLEMENT FOR MANKIND’S BENEFIT
Biointerfaces in drug absorption and metabolism - Nanofiber scaffolds in gut tissue engineering
Examining the ‘co-operative’ ethos in collaborative governance frameworks: perspectives from Black African Communities in Greater Manchester
Constructing A Panel of Common Predisposition Variants to Predict Women That Are At High-Risk Of Developing Endometrial Cancer
Unexplored role of ERK5 in wound healing
Expanding the Horizons of Celtic Art: Art and Violence in the Iron Age
Investigating interviewer and nurse effects on nonresponse to biological data collection in longitudinal surveys
Exploring the needs of family carers of people with dementia towards the end of life
FEATURES SELECTION AND IMPROVING FOR TRAUMA OUTCOMES PREDICTION MODELS
Hotspot Stress Prediction For Dkk CHS Joints in Offshore Wind Turbine Jackets
Modelling the Surface Chemistry of Plutonium Dioxide
Visual Question Answering through explicit image representation
Culturally adapting health measures for ethnic minority groups: An illustration using the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Version III
Investigation of TSG-6 as a potential biomarker in OA
Stchastic collocation method for unsteady Navier-Stokes equations
Analytical Survey of the distribution of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Concentrations from an Oil Spillage site
Shape-Specific Local Models To Segment Overlapping Structures In Radiographs
Multi-agent based Islanding for Resilient Power Networks
Ideas in flight
Investigating the alignment of cellulose nanowhiskers and its potential to engineer skeletal muscle
Story of Notch & Disease: Structural analysis of mutations
Ultrathin graphene-based membrane with precise molecular sieving and ultrafast solvent permeation
Designing chemical derivatives of hyaluronan - towards protein specific inhibitors
Attaching graphene oxide to polymer brushes for antibacterial applications
Mobility Infrastructures as Sociotechnical Mediators: Unfolding the Blanka Tunnel Controversy
: Investigation of endothelial cell viability and growth on 3D printed GelMa vascular networks
Blocks with defect group (C_2)^5
Human Agency and Historical Memory in Ukraine
Evaluation of Novel Materials for Nuclear Waste Reprocessing
An Intercultural Study of Intergenerational Relationships and Cultural Identity within UK Chinese Families
21st century skills, collaborative problem solving and student performance
The role of digital innovations in disrupting agricultural value chains in Nigeria
GrandPrix: Scaling up the Bayesian GPLVM for single-cell data
Towards a Verification Infrastructure for Web Services used on the CMS Experiment at the CERN LHC
Constructive sustainability assessment: implementing a responsible research and innovation approach for emerging technologies
Commissioning of TPEN: A Triple-foil Plunger for Exotic Nuclei
Modelling emission savings from route optimisation for wind-assisted vessels
Role of PIR2/RNF144B in triple negative breast cancer
The effects of carbonation and gamma irradiation on the structural properties of concrete.
Detection of Pro-mutagenic O6-alkylguanine Adducts Using the Alkyltransferase-like Protein in Human Breast DNA
Understanding highly radioactive waste
The mediating effect of work flexibility on the relationship between gender role ideology and household role differentiation.
Bis-Carbene Dysprosium Complexes as Single Molecule Magnets
The effect of pitavastatin and pravastatin on omental and chorionic plate artery function in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia
Biochemical studies of peroxygenase enzymes for application in the fuel industry
Magnetic fields around radio galaxies
Development of In Vivo Biosensors for Lignin valorisation.
Viscosity Membrane – A novel paradigm for fluid flow in porous media
Pore System and Microstructural characterisation of organic rich shale
Use of homology modelling in clinical interpretation of variant pathogenicity: CACNA1F as an exemplar
The Role of PMCA1 in Angiogenesis
Precipitation in Zirconium Alloys: Characterization Methods
Adobe brick thermal analysis in Northeast Brazil hot climates
Historic geoportals evaluation
The association between alexithymia and suicide ideation and behaviour
Retroviral reactivation as a therapeutic target in cancer
How immunotherapeutic receptors sit on the surface of gene-modified T cells- the culprit of patient toxicity?
Engineered cartilage-bone tissue plug for joint repair
The Investigation of The Chemical Degradation of Zinc Acetate Under PWR Operating Conditions
Role of IFNγ in adaptation and immunotherapy resistance in melanoma
Possible Scalable Production of 2D MoS2
Best Practices of OECD NGOs and Their Applicability to National NGOs in Ghana: Opportunities and Challenges from Management Perspective
Environmental influences on human preimplantation development
Comparing PSD and Bispectrum using fused Vibration Acceleration and Velocity features for Fault Diagnosis in Rotating Machines
Investigating Notch4 signalling mechanisms to better inhibit stem cell activity in endocrine therapy-resistant breast cancer
Dental caries in Saudi Arabia
Interpreting the Design Development of Public Open Spaces within the Context of Heritage sites
Artificial Molecular Pumps Driven By A Chemical Fuel
Eukaryote genes are more likely than prokaryote genes to be composites
Expressed Emotion (EE) in families of individuals at-risk of developing psychosis: A Systematic Review
The development of a novel therapeutic approach to heart failure
Protecting the hair follicle from chemotherapy: Role of ABC transporters
Sizing up the competition: Individual differences in men's dominance perceptions
Growing Research Excellence
Triggered Pluripotency during Kalanchoë Plantlet Development
Barriers to Supplier Collaboration in Industry 4.0: a Study of the Aerospace Sector.
Core spliceosomal factor mutations in craniofacial disorders
n Silico Investigation of the Functional Impact of SCN10A Mutations in Human Atrial Cells
Development of a Rapid Diagnostic Test for Chronic Pulmonary Aspergillosis
In Silico Investigation of the Functional Impact of SCN10A Mutations in Human Atrial Cells
A Molecular Endless Knot
Identification of Differential GDF6 Signalling Responses in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Adipose Stem Cells: Implications For Intervertebral Disc Regeneration
Study of the AdhE2 Enzyme for Biofuel Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
comparing the special interests of females and males with autism
Schlieren with a Sting
Life experiences, relationships with others, and symptoms of schizophrenia
The developing human kidney
What did you say? Could you speak more clearly?
Exploring the hidden half
Rainbow Nano Fingertip
Islands of Magnesium
A vision of the future
Mitochondrial fate in macrophages
Where the “Fox” are my birds? Seeking for the Svalbard rock Ptarmigan
Can algae save the world?
Selfies for Science: modelling the distortion in selfies compared to laboratory photographs
Stars and cyanobacteria
Open-Coating Electrochemical Surgery
A World At Your Fingertips
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of tin sulfide material
The Land Breathes
Drone for Geology
Characterisation of a violin
This is not a love story. This is a story about love
York Town Birdview
Sea in Swansea
Performance Testing of Transmission Protection based on IEC 61850 standard and RTDS tools for suitability of Future UK Power Networks
Background: Type one diabetes is the most common endocrine condition among adolescents and its management is challenging during adolescence. Methodology: Constructivist grounded theory principles guided this study. Findings: Three themes emerged from the data, first; the role of destiny in accepting diabetes. Participants believed that diabetes was a part of their destiny. Second; the role of others in managing diabetes especially mothers. Third; barriers to self-care. Discussion: This study shown the important role that destiny played in accepting diabetes and managing it. The belief in destiny was an active process; adolescents and their parents actively responded to their destiny by sharing the responsibility of the management. The role of others in DSCM can be explained by the collective nature of Jordanian culture. Conclusion: This study improves our understanding of diabetes management among adolescents and their parents in Jordan with the potential to provide better health care.
academic poster representing research into a comparison of boys and girls with autism from middle childhood on measures of language and communication
My research explores financial decision-making about pension following the introduction of automatic enrolment in 2012. I have used a qualitative methodology to explore the rationales people use when considering their pension. My poster will explore some of the key findings of my research.
Blade tip timing (BTT) technology is concerned with the stress measurements on the blades of turbomachinery applications. It has a number of advantages that would make it to replace the strain gauge (SG) measurement systems within the industry. Unfortunately, the correlation of BTT measurements depends on SG measurements which negates its advantage of reducing costs. Also, the complete technology of applying as well as correlating BTT to various applications is complicated, and needs to be applied by highly-experienced analysts in order to control uncertainties and reduce it to low levels. Thus, a standard method of using BTT is presented. It would achieve the best results without a need for high experience, and the dependency on SG has been reduced.
This poster presents research on historic graffiti written by passengers detained at Ellis Island immigration station in New York, c.1900-1914. Discovered during restoration work in the 1980s, the messages and drawings provide a fascinating insight into the experiences and emotions of people held in the limbo of immigration detention. These traces of writing are significant as a counterpoint to official mark-making and bureaucracy at Ellis Island. It was an environment where the performance of writing was suffused with power, especially in the marking out of passengers for further inspection using chalk symbols. In the official documents, detainees’ voices were translated, transcribed and circumscribed. In contrast, the walls of dormitories and detention rooms formed a backstage space for personal musings, creativity and low-level dissent.
Arabic calligraphy is one of the great art forms of the world. It displays Arabic phrases, commonly taken from the Holy Quran, in beautiful two-dimensional form. The use of two dimensions, and the interweaving of letters and words makes reading a far greater challenge for Artificial Intelligence (AI) than reading standard printed or hand-written Arabic. To approach this challenge, we have constructed a dataset of Arabic calligraphic letters, along with a corresponding corpus of phrases and quotes. The letters dataset contains a total of 3,467 images for 32 various categories of Arabic calligraphic-type letters. The associated text corpus contains 544 unique quoted phrases. These data were collected from various open sources on the web, and include examples from several Arabic calligraphic styles. We have also undertaken both an explorative statistical analysis of this data, and initial machine learning investigations. These analyses suggest that combining knowledge of a limited variety of Arabic calligraphy texts, with a successful machine will be sufficient for the machine reading of forms of Arabic calligraphy.
The fault location notion is a crucial facet of a power network. Many fault location techniques are implemented in transmission lines with different accuracy levels. However, modern life of human kind requires better and enhanced services. In order to keep the system highly stable and reliable, more accurate and trustworthy fault location methods are designed by engineers and researchers. The major types are impedance and travelling wave fault locators. Travelling wave (TW) is a sophisticated solution but introduces considerable advantages to a power network. The single-end and double-end fault locations in a transmission lines are primary parts of the system considered for this study. Transient and power frequency signals are combined with very high frequency signals for the analysis.
Participants can tell me about their symptoms from anywhere with the ExPRESS smartphone app. Whether they are on top of a mountain, or on the sofa at home, their data will reach me instantly. ExPRESS prompts participants once a week to answer questions about their mental health. It asks about symptoms of schizophrenia, like hearing voices and paranoia. It is also the first smartphone app to assess a group of possible predictors of schizophrenia relapse. One such item, increased stress reactivity, is shown in the image: “crowds or people have been more stressful than usual”. I have just finished a longitudinal feasibility study examining whether patients with schizophrenia are willing to use an app like ExPRESS for six months. Most participants (78%) used the app enough during the six months for their data to be usable. Almost everyone said they would be willing to use ExPRESS for longer, as part of their day-to-day lives.
Objectives Maternal immune activation (mIA) is associated with increased susceptibility to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as schizophrenia in offspring. We hypothesised that mIA impacts on placental and yolk-sac (YS) function, contributing to impaired fetal brain development enhancing NDD risk. We investigated effects of viral-mimetic and Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ligand polyinosinic:polycytidylic-acid (poly(I:C)) on placental and YS function and fetal developmental outcomes. Methods At gestational day (GD) 15, pregnant Wistar rats were treated with poly(I:C) (10mg/kg i.p.; N=16) or saline control (N=14). Maternal plasma IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β were measured 2h, 3h post-injection. Placental, YS, and fetal weights were recorded on GD15 (3h post-injection), GD16 and GD21. cDNA was generated from matched placental, YS and fetal brain and Il6, Tnf, Il1b, Slc7a5 (LAT1), Slc7a8 (LAT2) Slc43a2 (LAT4) expression measured. Schizophrenia-susceptibility genes Reln (reelin) and Nrg1 (neuregulin-1) were measured in GD15 fetal brain. Results Maternal plasma IL-6 and TNF-α concentration were significantly increased at 2h and 3h post-poly(I:C). At GD16 and GD21, placental and YS weights of 13-32% fetuses in poly(I:C) group were <5th centile control population; fetal brain and body-weights were unaffected. At GD15, placental, but not YS, Il6 expression was elevated in the poly(I:C) group; Tlr3 expression was unaffected. At GD15, placental Slc7a5 and Slc7a8 mRNA was significantly reduced in male and female fetuses respectively with no effect on Slc43a2 expression, or changes in YS. At GD16, Slc43a2 expression in female YS was reduced. Expression of Reln, but not Nrg1, was reduced in male fetal brain. Conclusion Poly (I:C)-induced inflammatory response elicits differential effects on placental and YS gene expression. Reduced placental and YS growth without impact on fetal weight, suggests altered placental/ YS function to maintain fetal growth. Reduced Reln expression in males may predispose to aberrant neuronal migration and schizophrenia-symptom susceptibility.
Despite the 80th anniversary of the discovery of nuclear fission coming up in December this year, there are still many unknowns in the complex process of nuclear fission. The poster describes nuclear fission research currently conducted using the STEFF spectrometer built at the University of Manchester. The experiments are conducted in collaboration with CERN. The aim of these experiments is to better understand the dynamics of fission and to provide valuable measurements for improvements in efficiency of the upcoming 4th generation of nuclear reactors.
Churn prediction models have been traditionally constructed using sociodemographic and purchase behaviour information as inputs variables. However, as new real-time service experience data are collected through social media and Web 3.0, such as customer feedback (CF), the opportunity appears to text-mining tools usage, thus unlocking further proactive models developments. This work proposes a validated information extraction process that, using direct and unsolicited CF, captures churn incidents to create predictors opposed to retroactive data. The benefits of employ CF text analytics for predicting churn is demonstrated using machine learning (ML) techniques in the retail banking sector in Chile. Results demonstrate the inadequacy of frequency as a text-variable extraction criterion to addresses advanced customer feedback modelling. Furthermore, it is found that several ML techniques exhibit significant discriminant power only using text to generate predictors, outperforming models based on global frequencies extraction schemes.
Layers of sedimentary rock form much of the Earth’s continental crust. These rocks are laid down in different depositional environments (e.g. terrestrial or marine). Layers of salt accumulate in arid regions where seawater incursions evaporate. Due to salt’s mechanical properties it becomes buoyant when sufficiently buried and can flow over geological time, forming salt-cored ridges and domes on the ocean floor. Gravity moves sediment from the continents to the deep ocean basins, resulting in the deposition of rocks around salt. Geophysical ‘ultrasounds of the earth’ (seismic imaging) makes it possible to study the subsurface, however areas around salt remain difficult to image. Cliff sections in the Basque Country, Spain reveal ancient deep-marine rocks originally deposited next to salt-cored topography; these are used to understand sedimentary processes operating in deep-water and their effect on the sedimentary record.
This poster is part of my thesis where I examine the effects of translators’ stylistic choices on the literary dialectal dialogues (LDD) function in the English translations of contemporary Saudi and Egyptian novels. The research aims to identify the procedures carried out by translators to deal with this issue. It also aims to explore if different translators have a particular style or preferred procedures when translating LDD. The first stage of the study involves a comparative analysis of random samplings of LDD that have been extracted from a number of Saudi and Egyptian novels. This stage maps the procedures that have been chosen to translate LDD in Arabic diglossic novels. The analysis first examines the construction and function of LDD in its original context and then studies to what extent these procedures have managed to reconstruct the socio-cultural and socioideological function of LDD in the selected novels. This macro analysis is followed by an in-depth study of the work of two translators, Anthony Calderbank and Marilyn Booth. The micro analysis aims to investigate the link between their translation procedures in dealing with the issue of LDD and how these procedures may have been used to reflect the translators’ own style and voice in TTs. From a descriptive explanatory textual analysis of the chosen novels, interviews with the two translators, and readers’ feedback from Goodreads and Amazon, the analysis of the translator’s style is carried out based on two aspects: first, to what extent these translation procedures have been influenced by TL constraints, the idea of the translation’s implied readers, the translators’ perception of their role, and ST authors and publishing houses; and second, to what extent the translators’ stylistic choices create a characterisation shift in the TTs.
The amyloid cascade hypothesis suggests that amyloid beta (Aβ) drives Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Preclinical models of AD have been developed where Aβ is infused into rodent brains either acutely or chronically. However, these models only mimic short-term effects. We aim to establish a novel model for AD research where encapsulated Aβ-producing cells are injected into the rat brain allowing sustained secretion of amyloid. Cells expressing amyloid precursor protein gene (7PA2) and wild-type cells were cultured, and conditioned media (CM) was analysed then concentrated and injected hippocampally into rats. A novel object recognition (NOR) task was performed to assess cognition. Cell encapsulation was optimised and achieved by microextrusion of alginate through a nozzle altering cell concentration, alginate concentration, flow rate, voltage, frequency and gelling bath concentration. 7PA2 cells consistently secreted Aβ1-42. Rats injected with 7PA2 CM showed deficits in NOR. A cell concentration of 1.5million/mL and an alginate concentration of 2% with HEPES in 0.5M CaCl2 provided stable microbeads. Nozzle size 300μm, voltage 1.0kV, frequency 5500Hz extruded at maximum speed provided uniform microbeads, average 550μm diameter. An optimised method for the production of stable 3D microbeads containing amyloid-producing cells provides the first steps towards developing a chronic model for AD.
Large number of antennas can improve the quality and realiability of communication and radar systems. This study focuses on methods to reduce their size while increasing the performance of the system.
Multi-functional wearable e-textiles are becoming increasingly very popular. However, the challenge is the complex and time consuming manufacturing process of e-textiles and the use of expensive, toxic and non-biodegradable, not very stable metallic conductive materials. Here we report a simple, scalable, and cost-effective method of producing graphene-based wearable e-textiles through scalable production of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) dispersion which can then be applied to the textile fabric using a continuous pad-dry technique. This application method allows the potential manufacture of conductive graphene e-textiles at commercial production rates of ∼150 m/min.
Evolution of the human genome and the retention of deleterious alleles and variants are intrinsically linked, and yet, to date the mechanisms by which disease causing variants are duplicated and retained are relatively poorly understood. The work of Susumu Ohno et al provided a solid foundation for the investigation of the role of gene duplications, particularly those arising from whole genome duplication events (Ohnologs), in human disease. It is now known that duplicated regions, and genes, in particular ohnologs, have a heightened propensity to be disease associated when compared with their singleton counterparts. What is less clear however, are the mechanistic and evolutionary underpinnings leading to the retention of such associations. Combining a mechanistic evolutionary perspective and a selection of machine learning and other bioinformatics methods, we have analyzed a bespoke open-source dataset. This dataset was designed to include such diverse genetic information as protein network connectivity, divergence from ancestral form, expression, and essentiality, amongst many others on a per-gene basis, 100% replicable due to it’s open source nature. Using this data we have investigated links between duplication and disease with a view to the prediction, and eventual treatment and prevention of both heritable and certain somatic genomic disorders.
Climate change is expected to affect water systems in the natural environment. In particular, coastal wetlands are more vulnerable to flooding and they are currently under pressures from human activities. The hydrological regulating ecosystem services of coastal wetlands such as flood control react to flooding producing both negative and positive outcomes. So far, the IPCC framework to assess vulnerability is based on exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity; however, less attention has been paid to the research of adaptive capacity. Also, even though there are some guidelines for wetland assessment to date, the natural view is not studied in deep like the natural hydrological adaptive capacity of wetlands. The aim of this research is to understand how coastal wetlands deal with coastal flooding by using their natural hydrological adaptive capacity based on the regulating ecosystem service of natural flood control to improve wetland management.
Gene and genome duplications are important evolutionary events associated with the emergence of duplicate gene families and novel biological functions. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane proteins, and their associated signalling pathway controls crucial physiological functions such as neurotransmission, endocrine activity, and immunity. However, the details of the duplication history of the entire pathway across evolutionary time are unknown. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the duplication events of all the interactors and regulators that compose the GPCR signalling cascade. We find that the different components of the pathway evolved under distinct duplication rates, with G proteins and GPCRs exhibiting higher estimates than the downstream mediators and regulators. Moreover, the occurrence of these duplication episodes was not coordinated throughout evolution: G protein duplications show an early peak at bilaterians, 937 million years ago (MYA); GPCR duplications were most abundant at the appearance of vertebrates and bony vertebrates (535-441 MYA), a time point coinciding with whole-genome duplication; and ligands demonstrate the most recent duplication waves, corresponding to the emergence of placental mammals (104 MYA), and the time period between the anthropoid ancestor (42 MYA) and human speciation (0 MYA). Our results indicate that the expansion and diversification of the GPCR signalling pathway was based on independent and discrete duplication events of its main components, suggesting that the maintenance of duplicate genes within the pathway may have been mediated by the selection of complementary duplication and divergence processes between the signalling components at specific evolutionary stages.
PuO2 from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel resides in interim storage at the Sellafield Site, West Cumbria. Canisters have a centerline temperature of 300C and are subject to a constant multicomponent radiation field. Out of specification containers have become pressurized, with a major constituent of the overpressure gas being H2. This clearly presents significant safety and environmental concerns. It is well known that the presence of a metal oxide can vastly alter the product distribution during the radiation induced break down of water. PuO2 has been observed to reduce H2 compared to pure water radiolysis while other oxides exhibit a catalytic enhancement by up to three orders of magnitude. Therefore, a metal oxide must be found that has a similar effect as PuO2 on H2O radiolysis so the pressurization mechanisms can be investigated without the associated hazards of working with plutonium.
Additive manufacturing (AM) is a powerful and versatile technique for the fabrication of complex 3D components. However, the uptake of AM technologies is hindered by several technical challenges, such as porosity and cracking. In situ synchrotron X-ray imaging sheds light on the phenomena causing these defects, and reveals insights into powder consolidation, powder spatter, melt pool dynamics, and solidification, which occur in a matter of microseconds. These experiments investigated the multilayer track formation of Ti-6Al-4V using the laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) process.
Establishing VRAC as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Alzheimer's Disease
The mixing state of black carbon (BC) significantly determines its absorbing efficiency and may modify its regional and global radiative forcing impact and may also influence toxicology. Here, with the aim of identifying the mixing state of BC, an experiment was devised as part of a large joint UK-China project investigating air quality in Beijing, Air Pollution and Human Health-Beijing (APHH-Beijing). During this experiment, we successfully applied a morphology-independent mass measurement of BC for intensive measurements in both winter and summer. We directly selected the particle mass using a Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyser (CPMA, Cambustion Ltd) and passed these monodisperse particles to a single particle soot photometer (SP2, DMT inc.) to characterize refractory BC mass for each single BC-containing particle. The coupling of CPMA-SP2 can thus quantify the mixing state of BC without assuming any particle morphology. The CPMA-SP2 results have been applied to a recently published inversion algorithm to derive the full distributions of particle number according to total mass and rBC mass, and this is the first time we applied this inversion method developed by the University of Alberta to the field work. Such detailed mass-resolved BC mixing information could be used as optical model input to estimate the optical properties, and also the micro-scale processing model to investigate the atmospheric processing of BC.
Introduction: Life partners play a crucial role in supporting people with Parkinson’s-related dementia (PRD), which can subsequently lead to feelings of burden, frustration and stress. This research examines the profile of caregiving life partners of people with PRD and reports the associated and predictive factors of burden. Methods: Cross-sectional data on personal profile and burden were obtained from 126 life partners of people with PRD in face-to-face home-based assessment visits (n=56), and through postal self-completed questionnaires (n=70). Socio-demographic variables and measures of relationship satisfaction, life partner burden, psychological and physical well-being, stress and quality of life were collected and analysed. Results: 89.7% of life partners were women (mean age = 69.6±7.4) and 95% of couples were married (mean partnership duration = 40.2±13.1 years). Life partners had provided care between 0 and 20 years (m = 5.6±4.6) and between 0 and 168 hours per week (m = 104.2±60.0). Stress, burden, anxiety and depression were common amongst life partners. Higher perceived burden in life partners was associated with lower psychological well-being, quality of life, relationship satisfaction, and higher depression, anxiety and stress. Life partners’ burden was predicted by stress, relationship satisfaction, anxiety and psychological well-being. Conclusion: The findings from this research are important because Parkinson’s-related dementias can often be more physically demanding and mentally exhausting for the life partners than other neurodegenerative conditions. Support interventions may be necessary for this population to help maintain quality of life and couples’ relationship.
This image was taken shortly after a focus group at a local sustainable fashion shop called Beaumont Organic. It shows the participants looking at the Spring collection, feeling the quality of the materials and discussing sustainable fashion. Research in sustainable fashion is of growing interest to academics and retailers. Today’s fashion industry is often categorised by throwaway and cheap fashion products with a decreased capacity for protecting the environment and disconnecting the consumer. Therefore, it is advantageous to improve the understanding of consumers’ daily practices, especially those practices which result in sustainable fashion purchases. Sustainable fashion can be for everyone and small changes in individuals’ day to day practice can have an impact. By hosting the focus group in a sustainable fashion shop it gave the participants the opportunity to see alternative fashion, style and consider what they have in their own wardrobes. It is important for research to make connections with wider communities and businesses to ensure that knowledge can be shared and used in a functional way. Making an impact can be achieved in many ways but for research to be applied it is essential for the development of a more sustainable society.
My research concerns the investigation of Elastic Follow-Up phenomenon that is encountered most frequently in nuclear power generation. The phenomenon concerns large pipe and other component assemblies, where the primary stress is always within the safety limit, but due to temperature gradients, most commonly, secondary stresses are introduced. When there are defects or structural discontinuities, then during stress relaxation instead of the elastic strain going to zero, it is converted in creep strain. Over time, the creep strain accumulates and can lead to plasticity and crack formation. The project evaluates components identified by industry where elastic follow-up is present, and then an FEA method (using ABAQUS FEA Package) is applied for analysis. This is compared with analytical derivations, which tend to be more simple and quick to use. The results are compared and a conclusion is reached whether or not analytical approximations are reliable.
Pore-scale simulations using OpenFOAM, of reactant and electron transport through synthetic porous media such as the Gas Diffusion Layers in fuel cells have been used to uncover and evaluate the effective electrical conductivity and permeability of lattice fibrous structures as an attempt to improve and optimise the transport properties. Predictive capabilities have been improved through the use of analytical and semi-empirical equations to predict the effect of microstructural design on the effective electrical conductivity; which will allow for improved conductivity.
The study of the interaction of molybdenum with hematite and magnetite
Cumulative global wind generation capacity stood at 539 GW at the end of 2017. It is scheduled to rise to 840 GW by the end of 2022 . For comparison UK total capacity was 78 GW in 2016 . Offshore wind power makes up almost 19 GW of the 2017 total, 36% of which is located off the UK coastline . High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) technology is well suited for the large transmission distances required by offshore wind farms. Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) are the state-of-the-art in HVDC technology . Presently, detailed knowledge of MMC VSC-HVDC technology is held only by manufacturers who, for competitive reasons, do not disclose details. A reduced-scale hardware prototype of an MMC with an industrially representative control structure has been developed. System diagrams, images and results will be presented to provide a layman’s introduction to MMC design and construction. References: 1. D Weston, “GWEC expects ‘growth spurt’ from 2019”, Windpower Monthly, Article, 25th April 2018, https://www.windpowermonthly.com/article/1463034/gwec-expectsgrowth-spurt-2019 2. UK Government, “Digest of UK Energy Statistics 2017”, Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy, Report, Chapter 5, 27th July 2017 3. Global Wind Energy Council, “Global Wind Report 2017”, Report, 25th April 2018, http://www.gwec.net/cost-competitiveness-puts-wind-in-front/ 4. Kamran Sharifabadi et al, “Design, Control and Application of Modular Multilevel Converters for HVDC Transmission Systems”, IEEE Press, Book, 22nd August 2016
Skin injuries originate electric currents due to a potential difference between epithelial layers, generating electric fields that trigger wound healing by directing cell migration towards the wound. Exogenous electric fields can accelerate wound closure via increased fibroblast migration rates. However, optimal parameters for electrical stimulation have not been established; and, although it is known that healing outcomes vary depending on the waveform employed, alternating current remains unexplored. An experimental model for electrical stimulation of cell monolayers has been developed and primary human dermal fibroblasts were subjected to several alternating current intensities. A scratch assay was used to quantify cell migration, while general cell health markers helped to assess the viability of this waveform for its use in wound healing therapies. This is the first exploration of alternating current effects in human dermal fibroblasts, serving as a foundation for further research that may lead to development of novel wound healing therapies.
Stroke occurs when there is a disruption in the blood flow to the brain. Without access to vital oxygen, brain cells begin to die. Stroke is currently the second leading cause of death worldwide. For the 30 million patients living with stroke, disability is common with around half needing help with activities of daily living including washing and dressing. Treatment options are very limited so there hence, a massive need to develop new regenerative therapies. The aim of this project is to investigate if mesenchymal stem cells, a type of adult stem cell all of us have in our bone marrow and fat tissue, can be used to repair the injured brain after stroke. Animal studies have shown these stem cells do not work by replacing brain cells lost after stroke as was first thought. Instead, it appears that the wide range of growth factors and proteins made by the stem cells are involved. Our recent work has shown treating mice with conditioned medium, containing this cocktail of proteins and growth factors, protects brain cells from dying after stroke and promotes recovery in behavioural tasks including nest building.
In the last decade, Social Media have become a place for people to connect with each other and exchange information about products and brands through eWord-of-Mouth (eWOM). One way for practitioners to capitalise on the persuasive power of eWOM and at the same time minimise the lack of control it encompasses, is by creating content that encourages users to forward it to their networks. Twitter appears as an ideal setting to study this phenomenon because, compared to other major platforms, brand conversations are a central activity. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the content characteristics of brand-originated tweets that prompt retweeting. The chosen methodology involves a mixed methods approach, which includes qualitative content analysis, quantitative content analysis, and multilevel modelling. The possible implications involve opportunities for practitioners to enjoy the benefits of eWOM by learning how to strategically create content that is more likely to be shared. From a theoretical perspective, this study provides additional layers of depth in conceptualising content that predicts sharing behaviour.
Let G be a transitive permutation group acting on a set Ω of size n and let 2≤k≤ n/2. Suppose that ∆ be a k-subset of Ω where |∆^G|=|G|and| Σ^G|≠ |G| for all Σ be (k + 1)-subsets of Ω containing ∆. I will present some results about the relationship between the length of orbits on k-subsets and (k + 1)-subsets when G is the group PSL(2, q) and q is even.
Stress is thought to affect episodic memory through modulation of specific brain structures, including the hippocampus (Roozendaal, 2002). Different types of stress, whether psychosocial or physical, have been assumed to have similar effects on episodic memory systems (Shields, Sazma, & Yonelinas, 2016). Stress during or before learning has previously been assumed to enhance memory, whereas stress during memory retrieval is thought to impair memory (Wolf, 2009). Here we carried out a meta-analysis to assess the unique effects of psychosocial stress on memory. We then performed meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies to compare the effects of psychosocial and physical stress on episodic memory networks.
A doctoral research project looking at how 2 local governments in Greater Manchester engage with Black African communities using collaborative governance frameworks to co-produce knowledge on how to address unemployment and underemployment amongst Black Africans.
Graphene oxide (GO) is a derivative of graphene that has potential biomedical applications. It is important to understand the interactions of GO with biological systems, including the innate immune system. Inflammation is a key response of the innate immune system that is critically regulated by the NLRP3 inflammasome. We aimed to characterise the effects of GO on inflammasome responses in macrophages using murine immortalised bone marrow-derived macrophages (iBMDMs) and primary mixed glia. We show dose-dependent inhibition of NLRP3-dependent interleukin (IL)-1β release and IL-6 release, but not TNF-α, following pre-treatment with GO. GO treatment reduced pro-IL-1β levels in the cell, but NLRP3 inflammasome formation and caspase-1 activation were unaffected. This effect of GO was pre-translational, as GO blocked LPS-induced expression of Il1b and Il6, but not Nlrp3 or Tnfa. GO was readily internalised by iBMDMs prior to LPS priming, suggesting intracellular action of GO. Uptake of polystyrene beads did not induce a similar response, suggesting that GO-mediated inhibition is not simply due to particle phagocytosis. We report selective inhibition of interleukin gene expression, independent of effects on inflammasome activation, revealing dissociation in the mechanisms regulating downstream targets of TLR4 signalling. These data show that GO can be used as a tool to dissect inflammatory mechanisms, and inform potential applications in biomedicine.
In 2017 US researchers revealed a prototype artificial womb (AW) making headlines globally. At present, premature neonates born earlier than 22 weeks have no hope of survival. For some time there have been no significant improvements in mortality rates or long-term complications for preterms at the viability threshold. The AW, that might improve these odds, is eagerly anticipated for clinical application. To determine when/ how AWs should be used on human subjects we must determine if AWs are an extension of current intensive care, or something different. This poster argues AWs are conceptually different from conventional intensive care. Identifying distinctions demonstrates how AWs raise different ethico-legal issues. Notably, the ‘human being in an AW’ is neither a foetus nor a baby, and using these terms perpetuates misunderstanding. We need new terminology for this product of reproduction. Highlighting these distinctions enables better formulation of ethico-legal questions for future debate about AWs.
Endocytic recycling of cell surface receptors is critical for numerous cellular processes, including cell migration. The Rab11-family members, Rab11a and Rab25 (Rab11c), are known to control integrin recycling thereby promoting cytoskeletal reorganisation and cell invasion. In addition to this aberrant Rab25 expression has been implicated in ovarian cancer progression, with upregulated expression in late stage disease correlated with poor patient survival. Here an unbiased approach, BioID proximity biotinylation, was used to identify Rab11-family protein complexes. Mass spectrometry based proteomics and quantification identified hundreds of proteins including cargo proteins, trafficking machinery and signalling proteins. Two candidates of interest, TPD54 and p50RhoGAP, were subsequently validated using co-localisation and a variety of cell migration assays, confirming the efficacy of this approach. Identification of further candidates of interest will allow us to further our understanding of the trafficking and signalling events that promote ovarian cancer cell invasion, and could contribute to therapeutic advance.
Acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) are piezoelectric optical devices capable of rapidly selecting a specific wavelength from a broadband source using an acoustic diffraction grating generated within a birefringent crystal by an applied radio frequency (RF) electronic signal. The use of a quartz birefringent crystal and photodiode as a detector allow the development of a fast, small and portable solid-state spectrophotometer with an ultraviolet spectral response. The aim of the proposed spectrophotometer is to determine total column ozone based on the differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) technique with an accuracy similar to Brewer spectrophotometers. A spectrophotometer has been designed which performs single wavelength measurements with spectral resolutions from 0.2nm at 240nm to 0.5nm at 450nm. A dedicated lock-in amplifier algorithm was developed in LabVIEW to enhance the signal to noise ratio by using a modulated RF signal. Spectral line measurements of Hg, Cd and Zn sources, as well as HeCd laser lines used to calibrate the instrument are presented. Additional tests conducted at Kipp and Zonen facilities (Delft, Netherlands) in June 2018, such as temperature chamber tests, calibration lamp measurements, and an outdoor side to side comparison between the proposed instrument and a Brewer double-spectrophotometer, will provide a more accurate characterization of the instrument.
The unsteady Navier-Stokes equation with random viscosity is solved using stochastic collocation method, where the two packages Spinterp and IFISS are connected together to generate collocation points of the type Clenshaw-Curtis and to solve the deterministic problems. The errors in mean and variance are estimated using the second norm.
Assessing the environmental impact of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants when spillages occur requires reliable analytical tools that can rapidly screen them with minimal sample handling. An investigation was done using a reference method – gas chromatography to examine the distribution of an oil spillage site.
Accurate control of the power flowing through multi-terminal HVDC networks is necessary to ensure that maximum power is being absorbed from the offshore windfarms. The current literature implements a Power flow solver to achieve this control. However, it requires knowledge of the entire network and measurements from each converter. In this poster, a novel power flow solver is presented which only requires measurements from the converters directly connected to the converter of interest. This partial Power Flow Solver (partial PFS) proves to be robust, requires much less measurements and has an accuracy within 10% of the power setpoint. The partial PFS was employed on a 5-Terminal simplified state-space VSC-HVDC network model that integrates windfarm generation, an offshore passive load, and onshore grid connected Converters.
Transcripts of UK parliamentary debates provide access to the opinions of politicians towards important topics, but due to the large quantity of textual data and the specialised language used, they are not straightforward for humans to process. We apply opinion mining methods to these transcripts to classify the sentiment polarity of speakers as being either positive or negative towards the motions proposed in the debates. We compare classification performance on a novel corpus using both manually annotated sentiment labels and labels derived from the speakers' votes (`aye' or `no'). We introduce a two-step classification model, and evaluate the performance of both one- and two-step models, and the use of a range of textual and contextual features. Results suggest that textual features are more indicative of manually annotated class labels. Contextual metadata features however, boost performance are particularly indicative of vote labels. Use of the two-step debate model results in performance gains and appears to capture some of the complexity of the debate format. Optimum performance on this data is achieved using all features to train a multi-layer neural network, indicating that such models may be most able to exploit the relationships between textual and contextual cues in parliamentary debate speeches.
Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are extremely bright, brief flashes of radio light. We know that FRBs come from far outside of our own Galaxy, but we don’t know what makes them or the exact position they come from. Since the first FRB was observed in 2007 only 33 FRBs have been observed, and only one has been localised to determine its host galaxy. The mysterious nature of FRBs is an exciting field of astronomy and is driving the development of cutting edge observing techniques. The MeerTRAP, or “more TRAnsients and Pulsars”, group here at the University of Manchester is developing technology and software to detect FRBs in real-time and rapidly localise them with the MeerKAT telescope in South Africa. I will present an overview of the MeerTRAP project, focusing on the rapid follow-up imaging process to localise FRBs.
The overall aim of this research investigates the radiation chemistry of plutonium dioxide (PuO2) stored in stainless steel canisters. Currently, Sellafield holds the majority of the UK’s PuO2 produced by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Radiolysis of PuO2 adsorbed H2O leads to the formation of gaseous H2 and potentially O2. Despite H2 being found to form at even low levels of H2O coverage of PuO2, pressurisation is rarely observed. Radiolytic recombination of H2 and O2 may be one process explaining this phenomena and investigation into the mechanisms involved will give an insight into the reactions occurring within the PuO2 packages. Experiments investigate the radiation chemistry of various gas mixtures containing H2, O2, N2 and Ar over both active (ThO2 and PuO2) and inactive (CeO2) ceramic oxides. The resultant headspace gases are then analysed using gas chromatography (GC) for depletion of the initial gas species. Products formed by radiation induced chemistry will be detected using methods such as Ion Chromatography (IC) and their yields quantified to establish the mechanisms leading to their formation. A computational model has been developed using the Facsimile software package to model the irradiation of a H2-O2-Ar atmosphere. Rate equations for the system are simultaneously solved to calculate the concentrations of produced and reacted species and the calculated reaction fluxes used to identify the key reaction pathways within this system.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) damage can cost healthcare services up to $6 billion per year. ‘Gold standard’ treatments involve the removing of a part of the hamstring or patellar tendon and subsequent grafting to replace the ACL. Though this technique is widely used in orthopaedic surgery, loosening of the graft screws at the bone integration site and mismatching of mechanical tissue properties can result in complications and surgical re-intervention. Synthetic alternatives have proven troublesome; lack of cell integration and infection has caused graft rejection resulting in failure and therefore surgical correction. We propose a novel bio-active scaffold, made from medically approved material that can mimic native architecture and strength. The Fibrillin-1protein, which provides elasticity, will be added to improve cell response and the rate of further protein production. This protein production will form the first layer onto which the cells will begin to build tissue, forming a new ACL.
Accurately segmenting the outline of bones in ra- diographs can be challenging because structures often overlap, which causes significant variation in local appearance. The degree of overlap depends on the relative shape and position of the different bones which can be compactly encoded using a statistical shape model. Many shape matching techniques (e.g. Active Shape Models, Constrained Local Models) use a single shape model, together with one local model for each point. We show that using different local models depending on the global shape leads to significant improvements in accuracy and robustness when segmenting (i) the radius and ulna in radiographs of the wrist, and (ii) femoral condyles in lateral knee radiographs.
A damsel fly spreads its wings and prepares for flight from the handle of a paraffin lamp in the depths of Limpopo, South Africa. Simultaneously, on the table opposite a group of Zoology undergraduates from the University of Manchester begin their own journey of scientific discovery by planning a research project to study animal behaviour in the South African savanna. The entirety of research that we see today begins with these initial ideas in flight.
Abstract of the poster
Retinitis pigmentosa comprises a group of different hereditary diseases affecting more than two million people worldwide. Its common phenotype includes progressive retinal degeneration and photoreceptor death, leading to incurable blindness. Optogenetics are emerging therapies which aim to generate artificial photoreceptors in the inner layers of the retina. Genetically delivered light-sensitive proteins can restore photosensitivity in animal models of retinitis pigmentosa at retinal and cortical levels, restoring light-guided behavioural responses. The experiment here presented aimed to develop and validate a retinal explant culture system and transfection protocol to facilitate investigation of novel therapies in optogenetics. Viral vectors containing human rod opsin and a fluorescent reporter gene were generated GFP-RHO. Mouse retinal explants were maintained in different media (Neurobasal A, DMEM and DMEM/F12) for up to a week and transfected with the optogenetic vectors specifically targeted to ON-bipolar cells.
In studying discontent with politics, existing research has neglected the role of local contexts and attitudes people hold about them. The huge economic inequalities between places makes the UK an ideal test-case for whether, and how, local economies matter to political discontent. I use British Election Study data to look at why people think their community is ignored by the political process. Firstly, residents of low-income communities express higher discontent. Secondly, negative perceptions of the local economy are associated with higher discontent. Thirdly, I identify a ‘grievance’ effect: people are particularly high in discontent when they see the national economy as doing better than their own community. My research has potential to inform debates on the political consequences of inequality and uneven growth between parts of the UK.
Recent years have seen a marked increase in the use of propensity scores to balance covariate distributions between exposure groups in observational data. However, there is scepticism about results obtained using propensity scores1. One concern is that an inadequately estimated propensity score may not effectively balance covariate distributions, which could lead to biased results. There are a variety of diagnostics being used to assess covariate balance after propensity-adjustment, however no consensus on the best way to do this2,3. A simulation study was conducted to compare diagnostics in terms of their ability to identify different types of propensity score misspecification. Diagnostics included are categorised as follows: 1) mean-based, 2) distribution-based and 3) prevalence-based. Categories 1 and 2 respectively include diagnostics which compare covariate means and distributions between treatment groups. Category 3 diagnostics have only recently been proposed. They involve comparing the number of exposed subjects at each covariate value to that predicted by the propensity score. Results indicated that mean-based diagnostics can fail to identify when a nonlinear term is incorrectly omitted from the propensity score model and distribution-based diagnostics are unreliable at identifying omission of interaction terms. However, the prevalence-based diagnostics performed well at identifying all types of model misspecification. To help overcome scepticism about propensity scores, being able to reliably assess covariate balance obtained after propensity-adjustment is essential. Unfortunately, our results demonstrate that some of the most widely used (category 1) or readily available (categories 1 and 2) diagnostics can be misleading. Further development of prevalence-based diagnostics is recommended.
The Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR) is the UK’s principal facility for disposal of low level radioactive waste (LLW). It is engineered to minimise waste contaminant mobility by generating an anoxic, high pH (~11), reducing environment once the facility is sealed. Anaerobic bacteria will be present in the LLWR and will derive energy either by fermenting organics directly in the waste, or oxidising them concurrent with the reduction of inorganic species including redox active metals.These biogeochemical interactions may have significant implications for near-field geochemistry and contaminant fate in the radioactive waste.This study aims to explore the potential for microbial degradation of citric and oxalic acids from chemical decontamination waste, under high pH conditions relevant to LLW disposal.Preliminary findings indicate that citrate is oxidised with nitrate as an electron acceptor. Results show a decrease in the concentration of citrate and NO3-, with a concurrent increase in NO2-.
‘Plinian’, coined from observations of the 79 A.D. Vesuvius eruption, describes the highest magnitude of volcanic activity, producing global climatic change and catastrophic local impacts, such as the destruction of Pompeii. Explosivity results from coupling of gas and melt during magma ascent, characteristic of high viscosity, SiO2-rich magmas. Discovery of Plinian deposits at low viscosity, basaltic volcanic systems challenges this theory, as we expect low-intensity activity such as lava effusion and smaller explosions. Consequently, driving mechanisms of basaltic Plinian eruptions are poorly understood. We report results of recent fieldwork at Masaya Volcano, Nicaragua. By combining geological studies with numerical modelling techniques, we can simulate the major processes which twice transformed this relatively benign volcano into an explosive system. Studied outcrops are observed within the capital Managua; a sign of the hazard a high magnitude eruption could pose to the population of Masaya, emphasizing the importance of understanding basaltic Plinian activity.
My research is focused on designing novel oligosaccharides of hyaluronan that are able to bind specifically to members of the hyaluronan binding protein (HABP) family. Here, we describe progress thus far in the design and production of novel oligosaccharides, including characterisation of modified HA oligosaccharides by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) as well as analysis of their interactions with HABPs, in particular Link_TSG6, a well-characterised model HABP.
Currently there is an antibiotic crisis with multiple strains of bacteria showing antibiotic resistance. Graphene oxide provides an exciting opportunity for use in antibacterial devices (1). We detail a method of immobilizing graphene oxide (GO) flakes in a Poly[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (PMETAC) brushes grown using ARGET ATRP. PMETAC provides a positive charge in which the anionic GO flakes can be attached and held in the system through charge and steric forces. Altering the grafting density via changing the initiator (Bromoisobutyryl bromide (BIBB)) concentration and thickness of the brushes may allow for the control of flake orientation, concentration and therefore the materials antibacterial properties.
Imagine Alice and Bob set out to prepare dinner for a group of friends. Alice will be in charge of the main dish and Bob will be preparing a beautiful dessert. Before they start cooking, they will both need to fetch the necessary ingredients to separate sections of the kitchen counter, only then can they start processing them by chopping, slicing, blending, etc. If Alice is preparing a beef dish, she will probably be able to complete all her recipe steps without interfering in Bob's workflow. However, if Alice feels like making a quiche, at some point she will need flour for the dough and, in all likelihood, Bob will also need it for his cake or pie. This means there is a chance one of them will end up waiting for the other and, what's worse, they still have to transfer the flour across counters which will always contribute to a messier kitchen. Clearly, some planning would have helped saving time both while baking and cleaning. Perhaps Bob could measure the flour for both of them or even make both doughs while Alice would prepare the fillings, setting apart their ingredient requirements. Here we motivate ongoing research on how to apply a planner, the polyhedral model, to a set of recipe steps, some program tasks, so that recipes, parallel programs, in particular recipes that specify their ingredients in each and every step, dataflow programs that specify each task's data accesses, can be executed faster.
A detailed understanding of the radiolysis of water under pressurised water reactor operating conditions (280 to 325 °C; 200 bar) is vital for the successful modelling and control of PWR primary coolant chemistry. Water radiolysis yields the oxidising species OH and H2O2, which without proper control may enhance the corrosion of reactor components. The past fifty years have seen numerous groups researching high temperature water radiolysis; most efforts have focussed on the contribution of low LET radiation (gammas, electrons) to the observed yields of primary radiolysis products. Few have attempted to quantify the contribution of neutron radiolysis to the overall yields. Protons from the 5 MeV Pelletron accelerator at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility are used to simulate neutron radiolysis in a water sample. We will showcase the method developed for these experiments, discuss the experimental challenges we have faced thus far, and present our newest results.
Fibres of natural or synthetic materials have long been utilised for application in different industries such as textile, automobile and construction. In the last decade, fibrous materials have gathered an increased interest for application in the field of biomaterials. Fibrous biomaterials have shown to be more active in generating a cellular response and are promising materials for manufacturing implants that can perform better than existing materials. The fibres shown in the image are of a synthetic polymer capable of generating electrical signals in response to mechanical deformation. Both mechanical deformation and electrical signals have individually been shown to have a positive effect on cellular growth. My aim is to fabricate fibres from this material and explore the combined effect of mechanical deformation and electrical stimulation on the cells. Different cells in human body have a penchant for this fibrous entanglement and look happier in such complex environment. We are potentially looking at a smart material that will aid the process of tissue regeneration and repair inside human body and reduce healing times due to improved performance. The fibres in the image were extracted from the corners of a fume cupboard in which the fibres are spun.
As the primary interface between the body and the external environment, the human intestine controls the uptake of important dietary nutrients and provides a physical barrier against harmful exogenous xenobiotics. Additionally, modern medicine now requires the intestine to function as the major source of absorption for a multitude of therapeutic compounds. Despite this, knowledge of the regulatory mechanisms underlying metabolism and transport in the human intestine remain rudimentary compared to organs such as the liver. Current permeability assays for drug discovery initiatives are focussed on 2D transwell assays, lacking considerable physiological factors such as tissue architecture, stromal cells and characteristic extracellular matrix. By exploring new methods of biofabrication and biomaterials that facilitate the incorporation of underlying stromal cells and extracellular matrix proteins, we have built more physiologically relevant models of the human gut. We show the use of electrospun nanofibers as a structural scaffold to allow the formation of a functional epithelial barrier that more accurately represents that in the human gut. Furthermore, we are exploring how the incorporation of subepithelial fibroblasts and collagen deposition within the nanofiber scaffold contribute to differences in the permeability and transporter activity between human gut and current 2D models.
3D printing can be used to create artificial blood vessels by using pluronic as a sacrificial material. Coating them with a hydrogel and then culturing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) within the channel. HUVEC cells are used frequently as a model representing endothelial cells in vitro and have been cultured or encapsulated with the hydrogel gelatin methacrylate (GelMa) to encourage vascularisation.
The objective of the project is to classify all Morita equivalence classes of blocks of group algebras in characteristic 2, with elementary abelian defect group of order 32. These are known to be a finite number, given the recent (2014) proof of Donovan's Conjecture for elementary abelian defect group when p=2. (Area: Algebra, Modular representation theory)
My research examines the role of human agency and its impact on the historical memory in Central Ukraine after 1991. It will explore the ways and the extent to which individuals exercise their agency in the area of historical memory, as compared and contrasted with the state’s politics of memory. Physical objects (including memorials, monuments, plaques and historical buildings) constitute the main focus of my research.
The Chinese are a large and growing ethnic group in the UK with continuous migration from China. There are a growing number of UK Chinese families, but little research to understand them. This is an inductive qualitative study which uses an ethnographic approach to explore and understand the intercultural dynamics within Chinese families in the UK. The families in the study consist of migrant Chinese parents and British-born children, meaning the two generations have experienced very different cultural upbringings. This research aims to explore how these different cultural backgrounds might affect the formation of cultural identities and relationships within a diverse set of Chinese families.
Endometrial cancer (EC) is a common gynaecological cancer and its risk has doubled in parallel to rising obesity epidemic. Risk prediction models (RPMs) help diagnosing EC and Lynch Syndrome (LS) based on family history, environmental/lifestyle factors and clinical traits. However, no existing RPM takes common predisposition variants into account. In this study, we aim to develop an RPM that incorporates genotyping into screening practices. We systematically reviewed literature to construct a guide panel of 20 variants associated with EC risk. A unique set of EC and LS cases (over 700) from PETALS and 2000 controls from PROCAS1 will be tested. A polygenic risk score will be calculated and, if predictive, will be incorporated into an existing RPM for EC. The results of this study will be validated using PROCAS2 cohort. To our best of knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate EC risk prediction using both clinical and genotyping data.
Wound healing is a multifactorial process, which occurs in response to tissue injury and ensures re-establishment of the structural integrity of the skin. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing remain incompletely understood, but recent studies suggest ERK5 may influence the regulation of wound healing. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 (ERK5), is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) family involved in a plethora of signalling cascades to control cellular processes. ERK5 is known to regulate embryonic development and carcinogenesis, by regulating diverse processes including cellular proliferation, migration, survival, and angiogenesis. However, further investigation is required to elucidate the exact role of ERK5 in wound healing. Our immunohistochemistry analysis show that ERK5 in highly expressed in the epidermis of wounded mice and that genetic ablation of ERK5 in keratinocytes results in impaired wound healing architecture. Concurrently, our studies demonstrated that knockdown of ERK5 by pharmacological agents accelerated migration of the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT but not its proliferation. These results are critical to establish a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with wound healing. Furthermore, this has the potential to complement on-going investigation into the role ERK5 may play in regulating the behaviour of macrophages in normal and diabetic wounding processes.
The study of Celtic art has a long tradition within archaeology and art-history and is considered to exclusively involve the intricately decorated metal objects from Iater prehistoric Europe. My research expands the boundaries of what is commonly considered to be ‘art’ in the Iron Age to include works rendered in other media, and focuses on shields, weapons, and martial performance. By conceptualising Celtic art as a kind of technology which was designed to produce real sensory effects, I will argue that it was integral to the way in which Iron Age weapons worked. It also served to amplify ritualised and threatened violence, as well as actual bodily trauma. A key case study will be drawn from a paper which I am currently co-authoring – the exciting new discovery of the first almost complete prehistoric wooden shield from the UK, which will be presented here for the first time.
The collection of biological data as part of large-scale longitudinal surveys has increased in recent years, creating new possibilities for research into the interactions between physical and social phenomena in the general population. Whilst the possibilities are undoubtedly exciting, these data can create additional challenges from the viewpoints of both collection and analysis. In particular, representative samples often suffer from missing data caused by sample members not responding to a survey request. The additional burden of biological data collection can lead to increased incidences of this nonresponse, potentially affecting the quality of the data and the robustness of results from subsequent analysis. This research investigates and quantifies the effects of the assigned interviewers and nurses on the likelihood of sample members to respond to the nurse visit in the UK Household Longitudinal Study and discusses the potential implications for the collection and analysis of biological data in sample surveys.
Background - The aim of this study is to gain further understanding of the support needs of family carers of people nearing the end of life with dementia; - Around 670,000 people in the UK provide unpaid care to a family member, friend or neighbour with dementia; collectively saving the UK economy more than £11.6 billion per year; - The overall health and wellbeing of family carers has been found to decline the longer they continue in the caring role. Methods - This is an explorative qualitative study using principles of grounded theory; - Approximately thirty participants will be encouraged to share their experiences of providing informal care during an in-depth, semi-structured interview and a brief follow-up telephone interview; - Themes and categories will be drawn from the collected data via a combination of open, axial and selective coding techniques. Results and discussion The researcher is currently recruiting participants and collecting and coding data.
This research aims to understanding how digital innovations (specifically digital platforms) are disrupting agricultural value chains in Nigeria.
The aim of this PhD is use computational analysis to explore the implications of using route optimisation with wind-assisted vessels to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases and other pollutants from the shipping industry.
Role of PIR2/RNF144B in triple negative breast cancer
Various demographic and medical factors have been linked with mortality after suffering from traumatic injuries such as age and post-injury disability. A considerable amount of literature has been published on the building of trauma prediction models. However, few analyse the features selection criteria. Patient records comprise a large amount of data and numerous variables, and some are more important than others. Highlighting the most influential variables and their correlations would assist in the better use of it. The intention of this study is to clarify several aspects of demographic and medical factors that could affect the outcome of trauma in order to exhibit the interaction between these factors and to represent their relationships. In addition, the aim is to use ranking and feature weights to select the features that increase accuracy and lead to better results.
3D Finite Element Analytic (FEA) models for hotspot stress prediction is possible but impractical for daily design, considering the large numbers of simulations for possibly thousands of realistic loading cases on different joint configurations and incurred computational cost. A realistic approach is to develop analytical equations most adequate to optimise the fatigue design procedure for welded tubular joints in OWT jackets. Considering the complex nature of stress distribution in welded multi-planar double K (DKK) joints, the existing analytical methods are inadequate to account for the uneven stress distribution. To meet these challenges, two important decisions were made: (1) an arbitrary load case can be decomposed into balanced basic load cases still equivalent to arbitrary load when superposed. (2) The number of stress points of these basic load cases should be as few as possible and capable of predicting hotspot stress at approximate weld location and accuracy as FEA prediction.
The reprocessing of uranium oxide (UO2)-based spent nuclear fuel in the UK has led to the accumulation, over several decades, of significant quantities of highly radioactive plutonium oxide (PuO2). For the most part, this PuO2 is stored in multi-layered stainless steel containers (some of which were fitted with a PVC bagging layer) while the government decides on its eventual fate. Unfortunately, some of these steel cans have been swelling up due to the buildup of gas inside. Multiple mechanisms of gas formation have been hypothesised, but this poster will focus primarily on computational modelling of the interactions between the PuO2 surfaces and hydrogen chloride, which is one of several possible products of the thermal and/or radiolytic decay of the aforementioned PVC bagging layer.
Visual Question Answering (VQA) is the task of answer any question about a given image. It has gained popularity in recent years due to its multi-domain nature: a VQA system has to be able to detect the objects in the image, parse the question and find the correlation between what has been asked and what has been seen. Current state-of-the-art methods use end-to-end statistical learning approaches to produce vector representations of the image and the question and then use them to output an answer. However, some studies have shown that this kind of methods tend not to actually capture question or image semantics, but rather rely on statistical biases learnt during training to provide an answer. The aim of this project is to build a semantic-focused VQA system based on explicit image representations.
Culture influences assessment scores used to detect dementia. When culture is not considered it can result in people with dementia not receiving a diagnosis or misdiagnosis of cognitively healthy individuals. We proposed culturally adapting assessments and illustrated this by demonstrating the cultural adaptation of the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination Version III (ACE-III) for South Asians and assessing its understanding and acceptability. A review of 32 publications on ACE-III and its predecessors and 7 questionnaires sent to ACE-III adapters formed guidelines on cultural adaptation. ACE-III Urdu items were developed with these guidelines and their cultural appropriateness assessed through focus groups with 12 British Urdu speakers. Their feedback was presented to experts’ to finalise the ACE-III Urdu. Its understanding and acceptability was assessed through 25 cognitive interviews. The ACE-III Urdu was received positively. The methodology can also be used to develop guidelines for other assessments and assess their suitability for any ethnic minority.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a major global health problem, where pain and stiffness in synovial joints lead to reduced quality of life. The aetiology of OA incompletely understood and there are currently no licenced OA disease modifying drugs. TSG-6 protein has been shown to protect tissues against inflammatory damage in models of conditions including rheumatoid arthritis and there is evidence that TSG-6 could be a natural regulator of joint damage in OA. Recent work has shown that the isolated Link module of TSG-6 (Link_TSG6) inhibits both the production of matrix-degrading enzyme by chondrocytes and the degradation of cartilage from OA patients ex vivo; in both cases Link_TSG6 is more potent than the full-length protein. TSG-6 can be cleaved by plasmin to produce a Link module-containing fragment, suggesting that proteolysis might provide a mechanism to regulate TSG-6's protective activity. Furthermore TSG-6 activities in synovial fluid (SF) have been shown to correlate with disease progression in OA, such that TSG-6 could act as a biomarker. In this project, SFs from 28 OA patients undergoing knee replacement were analysed by western blot and shown to contain TSG-6 at concentrations ranging from 1-32 μg/ml; there was also evidence of different molecular weight isoforms of TSG-6. In addition, an ~20 kDa Link module-containing fragment was detected in OA synovial fluids by neo-epitope antibodies. Work is on going to determine any correlations between TSG-6 in SF and OA phenotype and hence the utility of TSG-6 as a biomarker for patient stratification, e.g. in clinical trials.
Magnetic fields are ubiquitous throughout the Universe and underpin many astrophysical processes, yet they are still poorly understood. POSSUM, the POlarisation Sky Survey of the Universe’s Magnetism, aims to revolutionise our understanding of cosmic magnetism by studying the interaction of magnetic fields and polarized radio waves. I focus on the magnetic field around radio galaxies, which are galaxies that show powerful and luminous jets at radio wavelengths. This poster will highlight our Early Science results from POSSUM data, which provide insight into the inner workings of these astronomical powerhouses.
Cascading faults have been shown to be one of the major reason for widespread blackouts of the power network. The resilience, i.e. the ability to withstand and recover from low-probability, high-impact events such as weather catastrophes, of a power network can be improved by intentionally sectionalising the network into several islands. Faults occurring in one island can thus no longer affect the stable operation of the other islands, and the propagation of cascading faults is prevented. In this project, a novel multi-agent based approach will be used to dynamically sectionalise a network into islands ahead of a catastrophic event. This is done on a predictive basis by applying fragility curves for catastrophes such as hurricanes, earthquakes and flooding on network assets, and identifying the vulnerable components in the affected area. The multi-agent system ensures scalability and reliability, as the reconfiguration is done in a fully decentralised manner. The network is subsequently clustered into islands of various sizes based on the severity and local impact of the event, and the overall system resilience is maximised while local stability constraints are maintained.
Compared to other components of the musculoskeletal system, skeletal muscle is one of the least researched. This system is responsible for movement, support and protection. Skeletal muscle has a high capacity for self-regeneration however this reaches its limit when accidents or disease result in muscle tissue loss which can lead to a reduction in function of the whole system. Biomaterials and tissue engineering explore the application of different materials to restore function to the body through replacement, repair or regeneration. Intrinsically designed substrates can be used to direct cell growth and stimulate specific differentiation. This project investigates the potential of a nano-scale topography produced from cellulose to promote alignment of skeletal muscle cells and encourage myotube formation. Multi-nucleated myotubes are essential to the function of skeletal muscle and this research could contribute to our understanding of skeletal muscle tissue regeneration.
Graphene oxide (GO) membranes continue to attract intense interest due to their unique molecular sieving properties combined with fast permeation. However, their use is limited to aqueous solutions because GO membranes appear impermeable to organic solvents, a phenomenon not yet fully understood. Here, we report efficient and fast filtration of organic solutions through GO laminates containing smooth two-dimensional (2D) capillaries made from large (10–20 µm) flakes. Without modification of sieving characteristics, these membranes can be made exceptionally thin, down to ∼10 nm, which translates into fast water and organic solvent permeation. We attribute organic solvent permeation and sieving properties to randomly distributed pinholes interconnected by short graphene channels with a width of 1 nm. With increasing membrane thickness, organic solvent permeation rates decay exponentially but water continues to permeate quickly, in agreement with previous reports. The potential of ultrathin GO laminates for organic solvent nanofiltration is demonstrated by showing >99.9% rejection of small molecular weight organic dyes dissolved in methanol. Our work significantly expands possibilities for the use of GO membranes in purification and filtration technologies.
This study focuses on the complexities of the Blanka tunnel project in Prague, Czech Republic. It asks how we can reimagine infrastructural landscapes of mobility as integral social and material constituents of an urban fabric; and why is it important to reread such infrastructures as multi-dimensional spaces of physical movement and social processes rather than three-dimensional structures built for the sole purpose of travel. My study adopts a pragmatist perspective that traces the key notions of this infrastructural development as they appear through the actors’ positions. Infrastructure is often seen as static, as singular, as either 'working' or 'broken'; as invisible. This work contributes to the understanding of infrastructure as a process, one that is ongoing and constantly negotiated, even after its 'completion'. It traces a live infrastructural project in the making, that is not separated from its location. The making of Blanka, is in part, the 'infrastructuring' of Prague. It is not universal and global; but specific and relational, as it transforms and questions the very nature of Prague.
Currently in the UK the preferred method of immobilising certain intermediate level wastes is through the use of Portland cement (Blend of BFS or fly ash). However the drawbacks of using the current method are that the blend of BFS or Fly ash leads to problems with having a constant supply with compositional and elemental consistency. Due to the homogenous nature of the ILW the use of Portland cement is not the best method for immobilisation, especially the waste that are: • High volume of metals • Oils, sludge, greases and ion exchange resins • Effluents liquids So therefore an alternative method of immobilisation is required which is stable, cost effective and can incorporate large volume of waste. Hence the use of geopolymer has potential advantages and abilities over other cementitious materials for encapsulation of hazardous nuclear waste. In this study the use of geopolymers derived from pure metakaolin are being investigated. This research investigates the possibilities of using different formulation of geopolymers for the immobilisation of Intermediate level waste.
Unconventional reservoir charcterisation
Using homology protein modelling to produce a classifier that differentiates between disease-causing and normal variants in a gene
It is presented a thermal performance analysis of a social housing built with adobe brick walls (30cm thick) in the four bioclimatic zones present in Northeast Brazil. The analysis was performed according to local thermal performance standards and an adaptive thermal comfort index indicated to hot climates (de Dear and Brager, 1998). At the end the adobe constructive system presents suitable performance in all bioclimatic zones with possibilities of improvement to be studied in the next steps of the research.
Moving further into the 21st century, a new set of cognitive and non-cognitive skills under the term “21st century skills” has evolved as highly significant for success in academic and work contexts. Collaborative problem solving (CPS) is one of them combining processes of individual problem solving and collaboration competencies. The actual measurement of these skills has been argued to be one of the hottest topics in educational measurement over the past decade, with many questions and challenges still remaining largely unanswered. This study aims to investigate how CPS can be robustly measured and how it is associated with students’ performance by analysing data from the most recent Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 survey. The expected contribution of the study is methodological and substantive as it will use large datasets and advance quantitative techniques to explore an educational/societal problem.
The Gaussian Process Latent Variable Model (GPLVM) is a popular approach to reduce high-dimensional single-cell genomics data into a low-dimensional latent space capturing major sources of inter-cell variation. In some cases the dimension is reduced to a single dimension pseudotime representing the trajectory of cells undergoing some dynamic process such as differentiation or cell division. Recent work has shown that the GPLVM can usefully represent uncertainty in pseudotime inference and can also incorporate prior information from capture times through use of an informative prior on the latent space. However, an exact implementation of Bayesian GPLVM has computational complexity of O(GC^3), where G is the number of genes and C is the number of cells, and does not scale up to modern single-cell datasets. We provide an efficient implementation of the Bayesian GPLVM with an informative prior on the latent space using a variational sparse approximation which reduces the complexity to O(GCM^2) where M << C is the number of auxiliary or inducing points. Our method is implemented within a flexible architecture that uses TensorFlow to perform computation across a number of CPU cores or a GPU. On a range of single-cell datasets we show that our model converges much faster than existing methods whilst achieving similar estimation accuracy. Moreover, we have run the model using both 32 and 64 bit floating point precision and the algorithm produces similar results, suggesting that low precision offers a further speed-up. To demonstrate the flexibility of the Bayesian GPLVM model, we have also extended the model to higher-dimensional latent spaces. By using capture time information, the model can simultaneously infer pseudotime and other sources of variation, such as branching dynamics. This generalized model therefore has the capability of producing meaningful biological insights about temporal ordering as well as cell fate regulation.
CERN, the European Organisation for Nuclear Research, is a high energy physics research laboratory in Geneva. Its accelerator complex includes the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), which will in the next few years undergo upgrades whose result will be a further increase to the already unprecedented amounts of data collected. Therefore, for the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment on the LHC, it is vital that we have precise understanding of behaviour and performance of computer systems, and efficient/scalable methods of obtaining it. The initial approach to understanding performance and behaviour has been to design a new specification language in the form of a temporal logic. Subsequently, a new system has been developed to 1) check whether programs follow the specifications written in the logic while they are running; and 2) automatically modify programs to make this checking process more efficient and less intrusive. This poster describes the theoretical foundations that will support the development of the verification infrastructure inside CMS.
Promises of improved sustainability are regularly made in relation to emerging technologies such as synthetic biology. However, existing sustainability assessment methodologies are inadequate to evaluate sustainability at low technology-readiness levels across social, economic and environmental domains, struggling to deal with uncertainty spanning natural and social paradigms. Building on established methods for anticipatory life-cycle assessment for investigating environmental impacts, Constructive Sustainability Assessment (CSA) mobilises the social sciences grounded approach of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) to account for social impacts and facilitate societal alignment through multi-stakeholder reflection and deliberation. This enables the inclusive, reflexive and responsive consideration of sustainability implications with an anticipatory viewpoint. Through a multi- and trans-disciplinary approach, CSA represents a framework through which RRI can be operationalised using sustainability assessment; resolving uncertainties surrounding the sustainability of emerging technologies and providing pathways to constructively inform governance and decision-making.
A systematic review and meta-analysis exploring the relationship between alexithymia and suicide ideation and behaviour
This work focuses on overcoming one of the key toxicities associated with a cutting-edge cancer immunotherapy: namely gene-modified T cells. These T cells are also known as chimeric antigen-receptor (CAR) T cells. When injected into patients these T cells often result in adverse reactions, characterised by a mass immunological activation known as a cytokine storm. The present work focuses on elucidating and circumventing that toxicity.
Zinc acetate has been used in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) for the prevention of primary water stress corrosion cracking and for the reduction of shutdown radiation dose rates. Currently, zinc injection is practised in about 30% of PWRs worldwide. While the incorporation of zinc into the oxide layer of steel alloys in circulation systems is well understood, the fate of the acetate counteranion under the high temperatures and pressures encountered in a PWR remains unresearched. The history of zinc injection in PWRs is presented, while the effects of radiolysis and temperature on the acetate chemistry are also discussed.
L. Barber , D. M. Cullen , B. S. Nara Singh , M. Giles , M. J. Taylor , P. Papadakis , E. Parr , J. Heery , T. Grahn , P. T. Greenlees , H. Badran , R. Julin , S. Juutinen , J. Konki , M. Leino , J. J. Pakarinen , J. Partanen , P. Rahkila , M. Sandzelius , J. Saren , J. Sorri  and J. Uusitalo .  University of Manchester, UK,  University of Liverpool, UK,  University of Jyväskylä, Finland. The Recoil Distance Doppler-Shift (RDDS) technique has become a well established method of measuring the lifetimes of excited nuclear states. In the standard approach, a two-foil plunger allows excited nuclei to radiate either in flight or while stationary. This results in two gamma-ray energies associated with each transition due to Doppler shift. The relative intensity of each of these components can then be used to calculate the lifetime of the state. The Triple-foil Plunger for Exotic Nuclei (TPEN) has recently been commissioned at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, by studying the nuclear transitions of 156Dy through the inverse reaction 24Mg(136Xe, 4n)156Dy. TPEN consists of three foils, allowing nuclei of interest to radiate within three different velocity regimes. This results in gamma-rays of three different energies associated with each transition, one more than the standard RDDS technique. A third component can either act as a direct measurement of the differential of the decay curve, as opposed to differentiating a fitted function, or be used to probe two lifetimes of different magnitude simultaneously. The work presented demonstrates how the latter could be used to reduce the beam time required in future experiments and give access to more exotic nuclei further from stability with lower cross sections.
This study aims to determine how concrete structures used in waste management scenarios have aged, and any effects on the structural properties. Particular focus is given to the effects of carbonation and gamma radiation, which are investigated through changes in the compressive strength, pore water chemistry, and microstructure. These two degradation mechanisms will be investigated individually as well as simultaneously. Concrete is used throughout the nuclear industry, in both a radiation shielding role as well as a building material. Previous research conducted into the radiation tolerance of concrete has predominantly focussed on conditions representative of a nuclear reactor, such as neutron or neutron-gamma irradiation. Consequently, only a small proportion of papers have examined the sole effects of gamma radiation on concrete, a situation applicable to waste management structures. Furthermore, the majority of concrete structures present across the U.K. civil nuclear estate are over 20 years old. The vitrified product store is such a structure, housing high level waste incorporated into a glass matrix and stored inside stainless steel canisters. As a result, the store is exposed to elevated temperatures, gamma radiation and potentially carbonation. Conditions representative of the vitrified product store’s lifetime will be simulated using an accelerated carbonation chamber and an elevated gamma dose rate. Fresh samples are batch produced to replicate the specification of the concrete used for the vitrified product store. A comparison will be made to historic samples recovered from the structure upon construction, some of which have been inside the store accumulating a dose for over 20 years.
Alkylating agents are highly reactive molecules that cause cell death by binding and adding an alkyl group to DNA. Humans are widely exposed to these compounds either directly, for example via cigarette smoke or indirectly via in situ formation within the stomach, colon or at sites of inflammation. Such compounds have been shown to be carcinogenic in all animal species so far examined causing a variety of tumours including those of the breast but it is currently unclear to what extent alkylating agents may play a role in human cancers due to difficulties in assessing human exposure. The aim of this work is to develop a method to assess exposure to DNA alkylating agents and apply it to the analysis of human breast DNA. Using alkyltransferase-like protein (ATL) which binds to all O6-alkylguanine adducts (O6-alkGs) so far studied, a slot blot (ISB) assay has been developed using temozolomide treated human placental DNA (TMZ-Plac DNA). O6-methylguanine (O6-meG) was detected via anti-Atl1 binding to a maltose-binding protein (MBP)-Atl1 fusion protein or more directly via a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-MBP-Atl1 conjugated antibody. O6-meG in TMZ-Plac DNA was able to be detected by HRP-MBP-ATl1 at a lowest concentration of ~ 0.5 fmoles/μg of DNA. Current data thus shows the potential usefulness of HRP-MBP-Atl1 in detecting O6-alkGs via identifying Atl1 bound to the adducts in several human breast DNA samples. Further work is in progress to increase assay sensitivity to allow detection of O6-alkGs at even lower levels in small amounts of human DNA.
As a relatively stable member in 2D family, MoS2 has a strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interaction while obtaining a direct bandgap of 1.8 eV. These make 2D MoS2 promising and achievable by experimental methods. Melt reaction of single source precursor combined with Liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) was proved a scalable route to synthesis thin layer MoS2. Raman spectrums show that bilayer MoS2 are present, while broaden XRD peaks with (002) peak missing indicate that nanosheets are dominating the suspension. AFM double confirmed the existing of nanosheets with an encouraging bilayer distribution. We propose that 2D MoS2 is achievable by this method with a promising scalability.
NGO SUSTAINABILITY THROUGH BEST PRACTICE
The use of human Embryonic Stem Cells lines (hESC) as an initial model to evaluate the effect of glucose and O2 levels on human preimplantation development.
systemic review to measure the dental caries prevalence in Saudi arabia
Radiation can interact with matter in a variety of ways. It can break atomic bonds, liberate electrons, degrade molecular structures and make some materials more brittle. Radioactive waste from the nuclear industry can take many forms and is treated to produce a safe, passive waste form suitable for disposal. Highly radioactive waste from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is treated by incorporating it into glass (a process known as vitrification) and so, the effect of radiation on the material must be understood. The inherent dangers of handling the waste mean that inactive surrogates can be used with external radiation sources such as the gamma irradiator and ion accelerator system at the Dalton Cumbrian Facility to better understand long term behaviour. Determining the effects of radiation in glass is particularly challenging. In a solid material one of the easiest ways to look at the effect of radiation on a molecular level is to determine how many atoms have moved from their original position. Glass does not have any long range order so determining which atoms have moved requires careful analysis with complementary techniques. Another effect of radiation is to induce colour centres; a liberated electron can become trapped near a cation and cause the glass to change colour. The nature of these colour centres can be determined using UV-Vis-nIR spectroscopy. There are many other effects of radiation in glass such as bubble formation and swelling that are all important for understanding the behaviour of vitrified High Level Waste. This understanding is vital if we are to determine a suitable disposal option for the waste in the UK.
This study examines how the work flexibility of UK couples with dependent children relates to their role differentiation in terms of the sharing of paid and unpaid work in the household and breadwinner status. Identifying the influence of work flexibility on the coupled household matters because to accomplish gender equality in work and family roles it is important that both members of a couple are able to make work changes so that they can be involved in family life. Previous research has identified the influence of gender role attitudes on the working patterns of men and women post childbirth and has linked fathers’ working hours and occupation to mothers’ working hours and the breadwinner status of the household. This study extends the previous research by considering how the work flexibility of the mother and father enables or constrains gender role attitudes in terms of their effect on household role differentiation.
Since their discovery in 1993, scientific interest in Single Molecule Magnets (SMMs) has grown rapidly, due to potential applications that include high density data storage and quantum computing, along with a natural interest in the fundamental chemistry. As such, there has been a drive towards the preparation of SMMs that retain magnetisation for long periods of time in the absence of a magnetic field at temperatures that require no liquid helium cooling. The current design of SMMs is based around the electrostatics of ligand interactions with the f-orbitals. With this in mind, we have been investigating systems with strong axial charge, but minimal equatorial electrostatic interactions with the f-orbitals. This has produced some of the best performing SMMs currently in the literature and provides insight in to the relaxation mechanisms behind SMMs.
Introduction: There are no effective therapies for pre-eclampsia (PE), which remains a leading cause of considerable materno-fetal morbidity and mortality. Statins, widely utilized in cardiovascular disease, represent a candidate therapy for PE. Determination of statins’ ability to ameliorate the observed endothelial dysfunction in PE is lacking. Objective: To determine the effect of short-term pitavastatin and pravastatin exposure on chorionic plate arteries (CPAs) and omental arteries (OAs) from normal and PE pregnancies. Methods: CPAs and OAs from normal pregnancy (NP; N=43 placentas, N=20 biopsies) and PE (N=18 placentas, N=5 biopsies) pregnancies were mounted on a wire myograph. Contraction was assessed with KPSS (120mM) and thromboxane-mimetic U46619 (0.1nM–2μM). Arteries were incubated for 2h with 1µM pitavastatin or pravastatin; time-controls in parallel. U46619 dose–response curves were repeated or NO-donor SNP (1nM–100μM) or endothelium-dependent bradykinin (0.1–1000nM/L) following U46619 pre-constriction. All data are mean±SEM. Results: Neither statin significantly altered vascular reactivity in NP CPAs. CPAs show blunted SNP-induced relaxation in PE vs. NP (38±10% vs. 28±12% respectively; p=0.038; Two-way ANOVA). Additionally, 1μM pitavastatin attenuated PE CPAs vasoconstriction compared to control (Emax, 152±30% and 165±33% respectively; p=0.013; Two-way ANOVA) but vasodilation was unaffected. In NP OAs, 1μM pravastatin reduced vasoconstriction compared to time-control (111±20% and 123±23% respectively; p=0.044; Two-way ANOVA) but did not affect vasodilation. Preliminary PE OA data suggests neither statin had a significant effect on vasoconstriction or vasodilatation (P>0.05; Two-way ANOVA; N=5). Discussion: Data suggests statins are unlikely to be deleterious to placental vascular function in NP. Pitavastatin (PE CPAs) and pravastatin (NP OAs) have the ability to blunt agonist-induced vasoconstriction. Future work will focus on whether pitavastatin and pravastatin improve endothelial function in OAs from women with PE.
We investigate how men assess dominance from other men's faces, and what factors drive differences in perceptions of dominance
This poster illustrates how research ideas are generated in healthcare, and how ideas can be nurtured to develop research excellence within the professions of nursing, midwifery and allied health.
These research findings represent the state of art in European aerospace supply chains with an eye to Industry 4.0. The main contribution of the research is the list of barriers that impede supplier collaboration in manufacturer supply chains. To overcome the named challenges there is a need in industrial digital platform to match demand and supply in collaborative aerospace production networks. Several services should quickly decompose Call for Tender goals, match them with available supplier processes and assemble virtual enterprises using agreed collaboration rules and design method. This research impacts developing manufacturing strategies in Industry 4.0 scenarios, esp. in areas of tendering and managing supplier networks.
The cytochrome P450 superfamily can be functionally divided into a number of different classes. One such class is the CYP152 peroxygenases, which have evolved to efficiently utilise hydrogen peroxide as the sole oxygen and hydrogen donor during catalysis. This P450 group has attracted significant interest due to their natural alkene producing abilities and thus their potential use for petrochemical applications. An important member of this group is OleT isolated from the Jeotgalicoccus sp. 8456 bacterium, which is notable for producing long chain alkenes. Previous genomic studies have identified an OleT homologue, dubbed P450 KR, from the soil bacterium Kocuria rhizophila. P450 KR functions as a mid-chain length fatty acid decarboxylase and a hydroxylase, generating terminal alkenes as well as 2-OH and 3-OH fatty acids. These alkenes provide an ideal alternative to transportation fuels as they are well suited to existing fuel infrastructure, and provide ‘drop in’ compatibility. Structural studies of P450 KR have revealed an unusual dimeric structure, where an extended N-terminal helix from one monomer forms “zipper”-like interactions with the corresponding helix on a partner monomer. These interactions appear to be stabilised by disulphide bonds formed between two cysteine residues located at the base of the N-terminal helix and in an adjacent beta sheet element within the same monomer. Ongoing research includes the biochemical characterisation of KR, with emphasis on characterising product profiles using alternative substrate oxidation methods and analysing the unusual N-terminal alpha helix interactions.
Degradation of lignocellulosic feedstocks and release of chemical building blocks have high importance for industry and society in general. Lignin depolymerisation is a challenge for the adoption, optimisation and application of these alternative feedstocks. Thus, there is a demand for new technologies enabling its degradation and valorization into high-value chemicals and materials. In this work, a whole cell biosensor that allows the intracellular detection of biomass-derived aromatic chemical building blocks was developed. The biosensor was characterized and its utility in practical applications against complex substrate mixtures was shown. It was used to screen the release of aromatic building blocks from different biomass/lignin sources enzymatically treated with a range of feruloyl esterases. Overall, the biosensor was able to detect 13 substituted cinnamic acid based compounds. The ferulic acid substrate was detected over a 13-fold sensitivity range, with >25-fold signal. Following enzyme treatment against wheat flour biomass, the biosensor screening confirmed the release of ferulic acid and/or related analogues. The developed biosensor can be used to monitor the degradation of plant biomass and release of chemical building blocks, enabling applications, such as, the screening of lignin degrading strains/enzymes and the production of high value chemicals.
Solutions based on the chemistry of partially hydrolysed polyacrylamide are now regularly being used as an important material for the construction of diaphragm walls, bored piles and oil and gas wells. The main function of these fluids in geotechnical engineering is to provide structural support to deep excavations. Despite being used for over 3 decades, the stated purpose is still poorly understood. To tailor polymers to meet such demands it is necessary to develop a fuller understanding of their flow and sorption behaviours. This problem has been investigated experimentally. The results reveal that during the penetration of polymer in soils a viscosity membrane (based on the hydrodynamic interaction of the molecules in the solution) is developed which is augmented later as a flow barrier, by the mechanical straining of the suspended fine soils so that over time an increasing proportion of the hydro-static pressure is dropped across the blocking mechanism.
Recently, plasma membrane calcium ATPase 4 (PMCA) has been established as a novel mediator of angiogenesis through its role in endothelial cell migration and tubule formation. In addition to PMCA4, both PMCA1 and PMCA2 are also expressed in human endothelial cells but their contribution to angiogenesis remains unknown. Therefore, we hypothesise that PMCA1 also modulates formation of new blood vessels by altering endothelial cell behaviours. Transient knockdown of PMCA1 was achieved in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using siRNA (si-PMCA1) and confirmed with qPCR and western blot. HUVEC viability, proliferation and rate of apoptosis was assessed using Alamar Blue, Ki-67 immunofluorescence and Caspase-Glo 3/7 assay respectively. Live cell imaging was performed to evaluate migration of cells in a wound, cytotoxicity and cell death. Furthermore, tubule formation was assessed using the Matrigel assay and FACs was used to determine cell-cycle distribution. Transient knockdown of PMCA1 in HUVECs resulted in an 85% reduction of PMCA1 at both mRNA and protein level. Phenotypically, 3 and 6 days post-transfection, loss of PMCA1 significantly reduced HUVEC viability without a concomitant increase in apoptosis or reduction in proliferation. FACs-mediated cell cycle analysis revealed si-PMCA1 HUVECs had a higher percentage of cells in S-phase with fewer in G2/M-phase compared to controls. Additionally, loss of PMCA1 significantly reduced HUVEC migration and tubule formation despite significantly higher protein levels of the pro-angiogenic gene RCAN1.4. Overall, transient knockdown of PMCA1 has adverse affects on HUVEC viability, migration and tubule formation, suggesting loss of PMCA1 is detrimental for in-vitro angiogenesis.
Introduction: Late sodium current is a residual current from the peak sodium current (I NaP ) that continue to flow throughout the plateau phase of the action potential (AP), with relatively small amplitude (~0.5%) compared with the I NaP in normal cardiomyocytes. In a recent study, three gain-of-function mutations (R1588Q, A1073, and P1092) in the SCN10A channel (the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel have been identified in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the causative link between the identified mutations and pro-arrhythmogenesis in human atria has not been established yet. This study aimed to investigate the functional impact of the identified SCN10A mutations on the electrical action potentials (APs) of human atrial cells.
The Endless Knot is an important and well recognised symbol of many cultures. We describe the first synthesis of a Molecular Endless Knot, derived from the closure of an interwoven 3 x 3 grid.
Water cooled nuclear reactors use zirconium alloys as fuel cladding due to their low thermal neutron absorption cross section, good mechanical strength and their excellent corrosion resistance under reactor conditions. The corrosion performance of these alloys is affected by the distribution, size and chemistry of second phase particles (SPPs). In the present work, we utilise energy selective backscatter imaging and high spatial resolution energy dispersive spectrometry in a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM) to collect statistically relevant data concerning SPP type, number density and size distributions. X-ray diffraction is also conducted to complement the particle morphology data obtained with the FEGSEM and provide information regarding particle structure and volume fraction. SPP characterization is conducted on Zircaloy-2 and HiFiTM material in both bar and tube form at different stages of thermomechanical processing. The HiFiTM alloy is studied since it shows promise with improved reactor performance over Zircaloy-2 at higher burn-ups. The bar material is analysed from the β-quenched stage whilst the tube material is analysed in the extruded, intermediate pilgering, and final pilgering stages. Different SPP distributions are obtained by heat treating the materials in an argon atmosphere to a range of temperatures in the interval 600-700°C for times ranging from 1 to 10 hours. Shifts in SPP size distributions to larger particle sizes are identified with heat treatments at higher temperatures and times. An increase in particle number density and volume fraction can also be seen in HiFiTM when compared to Zircaloy-2.The resultant SPP analysis will be used to validate a novel model that is being developed to predict SPP evolution in both alloys. This work will also provide insight into the SPP precipitation and size distributions throughout thermomechanical processing with the aim of optimising the processing route to obtain the best possible corrosion performance.
What is the value of historical geoportals from the technical, social and economic perspectives? The Digital humanities are a new field of research linking humanities and technology. Although representing a positive step towards collaborative work, there are still limitations for this multidisciplinary endeavour. One of them is the creation of technological tools by researchers in humanities without an appropriate design process. As a result, the final product would not achieve the characteristics expected by the final user. This research is focused on historical geoportals, Web portals consecrated to the dissemination of old cartographic material. Relevant historic geoportals will be assessed from a more technical perspective giving insights about their success or failure from a technical, economic and social perspective. Furthermore, several good practices could be established as a suggestion for future developments.
Despite huge advances in targeted therapies, the prognosis for patients with late stage or metastatic malignant melanoma is poor, with a five-year survival rate of 5-19%. Preclinical studies have demonstrated synergy when using a combination of targeted and immune based therapies. The use of MAPK inhibitors followed by immunotherapies, targeting the negative regulators of the immune system, shows the greatest anti-tumour responses. Our studies aim to elucidate the mechanisms through which MAPK inhibition is able to further sensitise melanoma to treatment with immunotherapies. Preliminary results show activation of a type I Interferon response in melanoma cells after short-term treatment with a MEK inhibitor. This induction correlated with increased expression of the RNA and DNA sensors involved in an antiviral response and a subsequent increase in IFNß expression. In searching for factors, which may underlie this anti-viral response, we found increased expression of human endogenous retrovirus in melanoma cells after short-term treatment with both BRAF & MEK inhibitors. This induction of human endogenous retroviral expression was found to be linked to the master regulator of melanocyte transcription MITF. Our studies have provided further clues into the mechanisms through which MAPK inhibition modulates the immune response in order to sensitise melanoma to immunotherapy.
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that injures both cartilage and its underneath bone in the joint. One of the drawbacks of the current treatments is the limited tissue graft supply for large defect size. Tissue engineered cartilage-bone graft grown outside the body before implantation provides a promising solution. 3D printed scaffold is a good candidate for cartilage-bone graft because of its tuneable geometry and mechanical properties. Co-culture bioreactors are useful tools to grow cartilage and bone simultaneously outside the body. This project aimed to assess the cartilage-bone tissue growth on a novel 3D-printed scaffold in a co-culture perfusion bioreactor. Results showed that the scaffold was able to support cell viability, growth, cartilage and bone cell distribution on the scaffold and cell-scaffold interaction. Computational modelling also showed the flow inside the bioreactor during the perfusion. To conclude, this scaffold was a nice candidate for cartilage-bone tissue plug.
textile art piece collaboratively produced by boys and girls with autism and representing their special interests; showing their individuality but also shared community
The invisible shock waves engulfing the Manchester Bee at five times the speed of sound are exposed using the schlieren optical technique. When light rays pass through a change in density, caused by the shock wave compression, they are deflected and can be made visible through the use of mirrors and lenses. The deflected light rays fall onto the sensor of a Phantom VEO 640 high-speed camera recording at 1,700 frames per second with a 2 microsecond exposure time. The 150+ year old technique is under evaluation at Manchester to improve how complex flows seen around the Bee at hypersonic speeds can be investigated, without the need for expensive lenses and mirrors.
This image depicts a MRC funded PhD exploring the realtionship between traumatic life events and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It features two paintings; both done by two colleagues' children in the Division of Psychology and Mental Health. The painting on the left depicts that sometimes life can be filled with events that can be traumatic. The painting on the right depicts three individuals holding hands. This photograph illustrates the question; is there is a relationship between the experience of traumatic life events, relationships with others, and symptoms of schizophrenia?
IFNγ is a key component of our immune system, regulating a plethora of biological processes, including antitumor immunity. Its role in tumor immunology is however contradictory, exerting anti-tumor effects early in tumor development but promoting tumor immune evasion and tumor development at later stages. Its involvement in immunotherapy resistance is also extremely complex and is potentially mediated through multiple cellular processes. In this study, we aimed to generate further insights into the role of sustained IFNγ signaling in acquired resistance to immune selection and immunotherapy. To this end, human and mouse melanoma cell lines were treated with increasing doses of IFNγ for 24h and the levels of IFNγ pathway activation were assessed by phospho-STAT1 immunoblotting, showing that established melanoma cell lines retain responsiveness to IFNγ. To assess the effects of chronic low-dose IFNγ treatment in gene expression of melanoma cell lines, RNA sequencing was performed in melanoma cell lines treated with INFγ for 2 weeks. Interestingly, pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed oxidative stress response as well as DNA damage and repair pathways among the top upregulated pathways in IFNγ treated cells. In line with this, gene set enrichment analysis showed enrichment of DNA damage response and repair related signatures in genes upregulated by IFNγ treatment. Finally, we showed that chronic low-dose IFNγ treatment of melanoma cell lines induces DNA damage, as revealed by increased levels of γH2AX foci per cell and percentage of γH2AX positive cells. The role of IFNγ-driven constitutive DNA damage response in immune evasion and immunotherapy resistance merits further evaluation as an actionable therapeutic target.
Power spectral density (PSD) and higher order spectral (bispectrum) are popular vibration-based condition monitoring techniques for effective fault diagnosis especially in rotating machines. PSD is a traditional signal processing tool containing second-order properties (i.e. energy) of the signal while bispectrum which have great potential in signal processing carries the third-order properties of the signal (i.e. skewness). In previous studies PSD was used in optimising an existing unified multi-speed approach where combination of data at multiple speeds yielded exceptional diagnosis. Similarly, the bispectrum has also been explored in this light with very useful results. Analysis employed data fusion of acceleration and velocity features for each technique with vibration data collected above and below machine first critical speed. Initial test featured both rotor-related and bearing faults. This study presents observation from both techniques, thereafter comparison made on their results. Overall finding showed the outstanding classification of machine conditions for both approaches however bispectrum gave much distinct classification.
Breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) activity is enhanced following anti-estrogen treatment of oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer, potentially leading to endocrine therapy resistance. Notch4 receptor signalling is highly activated in these BCSCs, linking Notch4 activity to endocrine therapy resistance. In Drosophila, the Notch Ax(E2) mutant causes a switch from ligand-dependent to ligand-independent Notch activation. The human Notch4 possesses the same residue change, diverging from Notch1/2/3. It is hypothesised that further Notch4 Ax class-like mutations selected during endocrine treatment will enhance ligand-independent Notch trafficking, increase the BCSC population and drive endocrine resistance. Analysis of online genomic databases of breast cancer has identified 34 Notch4 mutations in primary breast cancers (0.95% of samples analysed) and 30 in metastatic breast cancers (2.04%), with 20 exclusive to metastatic. Investigation of BCSC activity in a Notch4 CRISPR knockout cell line has shown decreased BCSC activity, with a more pronounced effect after endocrine therapy. Interestingly, the Notch4 knockout cell line shows increased proliferation in estrogenic conditions, suggesting an interaction between the Notch4 receptor and ER signalling. We aim to explore Notch4 receptor signalling mechanisms using Notch decoys, a Notch4 therapeutic antibody and the knockout/overexpression of Notch4 and trafficking proteins. Exploration of Notch4 trafficking will be carried out using immunofluorescence to observe the ligand dependent and independent activation pathways. The involvement of the four human Deltex proteins in the ligand independent pathway will also be explored. Notch4 mutations in breast cancer and their effects on trafficking will be investigated using CRISPR gene modification and insights from Drosophila studies. The ultimate aim is the identification of a therapeutic target to reduce Notch4 activity to be used in combination with endocrine therapy.
Dual immunofluorescence of an 11 week human kidney. Early developmental markers, SOX9 in red and PAX2 in green. DAPI, nuclear stain.
My research investigates the phenomenon of Female-to-Male crossdresser escorts (known as dansō) in contemporary Japan. Dansō are considered by their (mostly female) clients as the perfect partners for their ability to embody the best features of both male and female gender, from a physical and psychological standpoint. In my thesis, I argue that dansō is a new gender definition for those women who do not recognise themselves into binary divisions as male/female, heterosexual/homosexual. In this picture, a crossdresser escort is dressing up for a date with a paying customer. Can you understand if the represented subject is a man or a woman? Is it so important to define his/her gender identity?
During decades many studies had been focused on those parts that we can see in plants while roots were ignore for a long time. The hidden half of plants lead us to many questions and exciting answers. When we look closer we found an intricate web of collaborations with organisms such as fungi, ants, bacteria and of course with something that some consider "dirt" but that is far away for it...The SOIL, a media where elements mixed creating reactions that give us back LIFE. However, we still have a lot to discover and that is the reason why my research is focused on how roots affect soil carbon storage using different grassland species by observing the root growth and analysing soil composition.
Human endothelial cells (HUVEC) were fixed on glass coverslips and stained for DAPI (red) actin (Magenta) and the fibronectin (cyan). The way these two cells were aligned makes them look like a rose, and the secreted fibronectin formed a blue corolla, offering a pleasant artistic surprise.
Heritage sites development is a complex process of layering through time. These processes have both contributed to the shaping of the physical landscape inhabited today and also, much more subtly, created an atmosphere of use, a demarcation of physical and social space, and an experience of the sense of the city (Bandarin & van Oers 2014). This led the heritage site to be treated as a fragment of the city without integrating it into the whole. This is the case of Liverpool Pier head where heritage challenges are reflected in how to integrate the recognized World Heritage Site into planning policies that treat it as a part of a whole rather than disconnected fragment (Rodwell 2008). The aim of this research is how to relate and articulate the local history into the design of public open space (Pierhead) Liverpool in order to attract a different level of tourists. In order to this an identification of the factors that could attract users’ to such areas. Accordingly, a meaning-making approach will be used in order to understand how stakeholders understand public spaces and heritage sites and what are the priorities taken into consideration through policymaking process. Simultaneously, how users perceive those areas, does the public spaces add value to the heritage and what are the environmental aesthetics for such areas from their own perspective. Consequently, this would give a better understanding of how flexible is the system in order to adopt alternative approaches for the design and development of public open spaces and heritage sites
The Leigh Group previously described a chemically-driven, artificial linear molecular motor which affords directional transport of substrates away from equilibrium, controlled by acid-base oscillations.1 The variation in pH switches the binding site affinities and the labilities of barriers on the track, creating an energy ratchet.2 Furthermore, this switching can be achieved by the use of a chemical ‘fuel’ in the form of trichloroacetic acid which transiently forms acidic conditions before decarboxylating to return the system back to basic conditions.1 Figure 1: Operation summary of the artificial molecular pump. We hereby present a modified design of our previous molecular pump by which the efficiency of threading is improved along with the switching between stations. Furthermore the threading procedure has been optimised by judicious choice of binding sites to afford a 20-fold reduction in required macrocycle equivalents. These modifications substantially improve the operation of the molecular pump and its amenability in future applications such as the transfer of cargo from solution to the solid-phase.
Non-homologous recombination can result in new genes being formed by combining parts of existing genes, and likewise, it can result in breaking genes up. This phenomenon has been investigated in many species, but not many studies concentrating on the distribution of composite genes on Earth. We set out to examine the extent to which genomes from cells, viruses, and plasmids contain composite genes. We identify composite genes when a given gene shows partial homology to at least two unrelated genes. In order to further analyse composite and component genes, we abstracted our genomic data into graphical form. We constructed sequence similarity networks (SSNs) from 1,190,265 genes comprising the genomes of 36 eukaryotes, 56 archaea, 90 bacteria, 79 viruses and 1,614 plasmids. We then identified non-transitive triplets of nodes in this network and explored the homology relationships in these triplets to see if the middle nodes were indeed composite genes. We identified 221,043 genes (18.57%) as being composites of at least two other genes or partial genes. Composite genes were found distributed across all kinds of genomes and across all functions of COGs. Interestingly, the presence of composite genes is statistically significantly more likely in eukaryotes rather than prokaryotes.
The At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) for psychosis describes a state that confers a high but not inevitable risk for developing a psychotic disorder in the near future. The distressing experiences for individuals with an ARMS may impact on themselves; their sense of wellbeing, their psychosocial functioning as well as on their family. Understanding what variables may lead to poorer outcomes may help to further reduce transition rates. Expressed emotion (EE) looks at the environment and communication style of relatives to their family member and is a key factor in established psychosis. Therefore, it can be considered an important potential explanatory variable in families of individuals with an ARMS. Following PRISMA guidelines, a systematic review of EE in relatives of ARMS was conducted. We identified 15 studies investigating the relationship between EE in the ARMS population. Approximately one third of ARMS relatives had high-EE. The results suggest that greater levels of criticism and hostility are associated with higher levels of symptoms and poorer functioning. In contradiction to psychosis literature, the construct Emotional Over Involvement (EOI) was found to be an adaptive response, where family members’ concerns and worries of the individuals made no negative impact on symptoms. Environments that included warmth and positive remarks, combined with optimal family involvement were associated with improved functioning and reduced symptoms. Limitations of the quality of the studies includes small sample sizes, and over-represented samples of Caucasian, male individuals and family members as middle-aged mothers. Although approximately half of the studies included were longitudinal, only two measured EE over time, therefore, future research should look to include larger studies measuring EE at more than one time point.
The photo on the left was made by combining facial photos taken in our lab of 86 people, whereas the right photo is made from photos of the same 86 people taken on a smartphone camera by the participants themselves under instructions. We are examining the differences quantitatively in the hope that we can use these 'scientific selfies' as a source of data for studying the human face. Researchers from many disciplines study the human face. We take thousands of selfies everyday, so it would be really beneficial if we could leverage this modern habit to help researchers.
Chronic heart failure is a serious pathological condition with a rising prevalence and high mortality. A key stage during the development of the disease is cardiac hypertrophy, which has been shown to be a requirement for the progression of heart failure. Recent work by our group has identified a role for PMCA4 during hypertrophy, with inhibition of the pump shown to be anti-hypertrophic, and prevent and reverse heart failure in vivo. From this, several small molecule inhibitors of PMCA4, inhibiting the ATPase activity of the pump, have been identified and require further testing. The aims of this project are twofold; firstly, to investigate the anti-hypertrophic properties of the novel compounds C17 and C20 in vitro, and secondly to study the cardiac phenotype of PMCA4 ATPase-null mice to give a better understanding of the in vivo effects of PMCA4 inhibition. The novel compounds have been tested in vitro on H9C2 cells as well as neonatal rat cardiomyocytes under conditions of phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy. Cell size, total protein levels, and levels of hypertrophic markers BNP and ANP were significantly reduced in C17 or C20 treated groups. PMCA4 ATPase-null mice have been subjected to transverse aortic constriction for 5 weeks as a model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The PMCA4 mutation shows a protective effect in these animals compared to wild-type mice. Together these results have shown PMCA4 inhibition as a potential novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.
Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is highly distressing adverse effect of cancer treatment, yet remains a major unmet challenge in clinical oncology with no satisfactory pharmacological intervention currently available. Therefore, novel and effective CIA management strategies urgently need to be explored. We have tested the working hypothesis that the targeted up-regulation of specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters may render HF keratinocytes less sensitive to chemotherapy cytotoxicity as ABC transporters efflux a wide variety of chemotherapeutic agents. We show that primary outer root sheath (ORS) keratinocytes express functional ABC transporters (primarily ABCC1). Blocking activity of this efflux transporter with reversan renders human ORS keratinocytes more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin, a key CIA-inducing drug. We screened for compounds that increase ABC transporter activity in ORS keratinocytes using a Hoechst 33342 accumulation assay and found that T0901317 (LXR agonist) or lopinavir (protease inhibitor) increased ABC transporter activity in ORS keratinocytes (p<0.05, n=5). These compounds decreased the toxicity doxorubicin shown in three different ways by MTT assay (p<0.05, n=5), LDH assay (p<0.01, n=4) and the activity of cleaved caspase-3 (p<0.01, n=4). The protection afforded by lopinavir may be mediated by ABCC1 transporter activity as inhibiting ABCC1 with reversan reversed its protective effect p<0.05, n=5). Therefore, this proof-of-principle cell culture study supports the strategy to target CIA-relevant intrafollicular ABC transporters so as to reduce chemotherapy-induced toxicity in human HF epithelium.
Contrast to animal cells, plant cells demonstrates incredible plasticity. A differentiated plant cell can be triggered to de-differentiate and regain its pluripotency. Kalanchoë plants evolved to have a distinctive asexual reproductive strategy by forming plantlets, miniature version of adult plant on the leaf margin. Previous studies have shown that plantlet formation in Kalanchoë daigremontiana involves the process of ectopic embryogenesis, in which differentiated leaf cells de-differentiate and regain totipotent potential to develop into an embryo. However, molecular mechanism(s) underlying this cell fate change during plantlet formation remains elusive. Here our RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that genes involved in auxin signalling and meristem development were differentially regulated during plantlet formation. Along with the RNA-sequencing experiment, several candidate genes were also identified based on their function in somatic embryogenesis and meristem development. To understand their roles in plantlet formation, Knockout transgenic K. daigremontiana plants of these genes are being generated. Upon successful generation of transgenic plants, phenotypic analysis is performed to further understand participation of the candidate genes in plantlet formation. Further analysis of RNA-sequencing data will also reveal novel genes and additional pathways involved in different stages of plantlet formation, which will shed light on how different pathways have co-opted to facilitate the triggered pluripotency of the Kalanchoë leaf margin.
The craniofacial disorders BMKS and MFDGA are caused by reduced expression of the U5 snRNP genes TXNL4A and EFTUD2, respectively. These craniofacial disorders suggest a link between U5 snRNP function and craniofacial development, and a potential functional link between TXNL4A and EFTUD2 during splicing. RNA-Seq of yeast models of BMKS and MFDGA confirmed widespread mis-splicing of subsets of pre-mRNAs following knockdown of TXNL4A and EFTUD2 expression. Importantly, we found defective splicing of genes involved in cellular stress responses, such as CNB1 (ER stress response) and NMD2 (nonsense-mediated decay). Reduced levels of CNB1 or NMD2 could render cells unable to cope during stress, which may lead to inappropriate activation of apoptosis during development. Indeed, our yeast models of BMKS and MFDGA showed reduced growth fitness compared to wildtype strains under conditions of ER stress. Using CRISPR-Cas9, we have generated an EFTUD2-knockout cell line. Growth assays revealed that these EFTUD2-knockout cells grow significantly slower than wildtype cells, and their growth is more sensitive to ER stress. Our cell line displayed reduced expression of both TXNL4A and EFTUD2, suggesting co-regulation of expression of these U5 snRNP genes, along with altered expression of several other genes, including CNB1, NMD2 and IRE1 involved in the ER stress response. We aim to further characterise the effect on splicing caused by patient-specific mutations in TXNL4A and EFTUD2, and identify features of genes whose splicing is more sensitive to disruption of EFTUD2 and TXNL4A. We now have mouse models for BMKS to investigate exactly which splicing events are disrupted during craniofacial development.
A fluorescent image of a cyanobacterium that is found in a spent nuclear fuel pond
One of my PhD objectives is to generate an electrochemical testing to input and speed up the degradation of organic coatings in metal substrates. In this image it can be seen a scratched steel coated panel in which the corrosion process is applied by the generation of an electrochemical signal, but its looks like I am doing a surgery on a piece of painted metal.
Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a fungal infection disease characterised by cough, haemoptysis and weight loss present for at least for three months in non-immunocompromised people. This disease is caused by Aspergillus spp. especially Aspergillus fumigatus that can reach the respiratory tract by airborne transmission. There are an estimated 3 million cases of CPA worldwide. This disease has a high morbidity and mortality because it is often misdiagnosed and mistreated, but is responsive to antifungal therapy. The diagnosis of CPA needs laboratory detection of Aspergillus-specific IgG antibodies (Aspf IgG) besides clinical symptoms and typical radiological appearances. This diagnostics test for CPA is not available worldwide especially in resource-limited settings because of its relatively high cost and lack of expertise. A new diagnostics test that is simpler to perform and inexpensive will help the diagnosis of CPA and thereby improve access to treatment.
k sodium current (????????????????) that continue to flow throughout the plateau compared with the ???? in normal cardiomyocytes. In a recent study, three phase of the action potential (AP), with relatively small amplitude (~0.5%) ???????????? gain-of-function mutations (R1588Q, A1073, and P1092) in the SCN10A channel (the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel, ???? ) have been identified in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the causative link between the identified mutations and pro-arrhythmogenesis in human atria has not been established yet. This study aimed to investigate the functional impact of the identified SCN10A mutations on the electrical action potentials (APs) of human atrial cells. Methods: Hodgkin-Huxley formulations of the ???? developed by Grandi ???????????? et al. for human atrial cell was modified and validated based on the and P1092 variants. The obtained ???? model equations were then ???????????? experimental data of SCN10A channel on wild type (WT), R1588Q, A1073, incorporated into Colman et al. model for the electrical APs of human atrial cells. Results: The gain-of-function mutations were found to (i) elevate the 90% repolarisation (???????????? ) by ~7% and ~9% compared with WT for A1073 90 plateau potential to more positive value; and (ii) increase the AP duration at and P1092 mutations, respectively. The A0173/P1092 mutations exhibited an increase in the ????????+concentration, which leads to intracellular ????????2+ overload via revers mode of ????????+-????????2+ exchanger. The alteration of ????????+ and ????????2+ concentration causes electrical instability due to AP prolongation, enhanced automaticity, triggered arrhythmic activity and contractile dysfunction. Such conditions underlie the initiation and maintenance of AF. However, no noticeable change was found in AP profile of R1588Q variant. Conclusion: The impact of SCN10A mutations on ???????????? and the 90 intracellular ????????2+ could have important implications to understand the mechanisms behind which mutations enhance atrial function and influence susceptibility to AF.
Low back pain (LBP), caused by intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration represents one of the most significant socioeconomic conditions facing Western economies. Novel regenerative therapies, however, have the potential to restore function and relieve pain. We have previously shown that stimulation of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) with growth differentiation factor-6 (GDF6) promotes differentiation to nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of the IVD, offering a potential treatment for LBP. The aim of this study were to elucidate GDF6 cell surface receptor profile and signalling pathways to better understand mechanism of action. GDF6 receptor expression by ASCs (N=6) was profiled through western blot, immunofluorescence (IF) and flow cytometry. Signal transduction through Smad1/5/8 and non-smad pathways following GDF6 (100ng/ml) stimulation was assessed using western blotting and confirmed using pathway specific blockers and type II receptor sub-unit knockdown using CRISPR. BMPR profiling revealed high BMPR2 expression on ASCs. GDF6 stimulation of ASCs resulted in significant increases in Smad1/5/8 and Erk phosphorylation, but not p38 signalling. Blocking GDF6 signalling confirmed differentiation to NP cells required Smad phosphorylation, but not Erk. This study elucidates the signalling mechanisms responsible for GDF6-induced ASC differentiation to NP cells.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is often used as a biotechnological workhorse to produce useful compounds. Our lab has previously shown that the biofuel n-butanol can be produced by expressing a Clostridial butanol synthesis pathway in yeast. However, the titre of n-butanol produced is below what would be deemed commercially relevant. Interestingly, in some of these butanol production strains there is a prominent level of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). 2,3-BD represents an important high value chemical with numerous industrial applications ranging from synthetic perfumes, plasticisers, food and pharmaceuticals. Therefore in this project we investigated which of the Clostridial butanol production enzymes are favouring 2,3-BD production. In particular, a yeast genetic analysis suggests that expression of the Clostridial AdhE2 enzyme is important for elevated 23-BD production. AdhE2 is a bifunctional enzyme with separate alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase domains. Current studies are focussed on the role of each of these domains in elevated 23-BD production. During the course of these studies, we came across another factor that affects the activity of exogenously expressed enzymes like AdhE2; that is protein aggregation. For the AdhE2 enzyme expressed in yeast, levels of aggregated protein were at least as high as that found for endogenous proteins under ER stress. However, while the overexpression of selected chaperones such as Sis1, Sse1 or Ssb1 reduces levels of protein aggregation caused by ER stress, it fails to reduce the aggregation of the AdhE2 enzyme. Therefore, an important consideration in applications where proteins/ enzymes are introduced across species is the solubility of the resulting protein.
This ancient structure has been reconstructed upon what has been found of it. The curves represent waves and water represents change.
Spring is coming and the tree began to grow with tiny little green bud on it. The tree will be stronger as time goes by however lose its strength when it's too old. The aging of tree is similar to the aging of my material. With tiny little precipitates appear at the first stage, material will be strengthened. With time passes by, the material will be 'too old' to lose its strength. In the natural world, principles are similar and easy.
Polymer beads which have pumped a fluorescent macrocycle from solution against a concentration gradient as cells do in Biology. The picture mimics our sleepless city lights at night.
Today, more than 11 million people across the UK suffer from hearing loss, which translates to about one-in-six people in the UK. Hearing loss is far beyond a sensory impairment, as has been associated with negative physical, social, cognitive, economic and emotional consequences. Because hearing loss nearly always develops gradually, people do not see it as a dramatic health problem requiring urgent intervention. Thus, persevere with declining hearing for approximately 15 years before they seek help and uptake a hearing aid. This pattern, along with a range of lifestyle and environmental factors, which are linked to the risk of hearing loss, are more common among lower socioeconomic groups. My project, funded by the NIHR Manchester BRC, will examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and the development of hearing impairment and the impact of hearing impairment on the lives of older adults in England, in terms of mental well-being, quality of life, social engagement and economic position, using longitudinal data. The aim is to inform health policy strategies to minimise socioeconomic risks for hearing impairment and access to hearing health services and hearing aid use, in order to mitigate the adverse effects of hearing impairment in older adults in England.
The montage consists nine images obtained simultaneously using the one of the most advanced transmission electron microscope named Titan. The ‘Fingertip’ is patterned by hundreds synthesised nanorods. Each nanorod is just about 50 nanometre long, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the most smallest human cell such as red blood cell. Chemists synthesised these nanorods using five metallic elements in order to tune the interactions between light and matter in semiconductors. The greyscale image in the left top corner is scanning transmission electron microscopy high angle annular dark field (STEM-HAADF) image. The contrast in this image is related to the materials atomic numbers and it reveals the general core-shell structure with heavy metal in the core. Colour maps are chemistry-sensitive and composed by two of five elements. These colour images are STEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (STEM-EDS) images and they detail more complex distribution of elements than the core-shell structure. This montage illustrates a remarkable achievement by chemists who are able to engineer the complex multi-element synthesis towards uniform nano-objects. It also demonstrate the power of transmission electron microscope that are able to probe both structure and chemistry information in the nano world.
Tissue healing in the human body can be greatly assisted by the use of implants. This is especially frequent in bone fractures. However, implants are commonly required for only a certain amount of time in the body, and an additional surgery for removal of the implant is sometimes necessary. This scenario is substantially changed when temporary implants come into play. They can assist bone healing and slowly degrade, finally being fully eliminated from the body. First of all, the material has to support the attachment of bone cells. Second, the degradation products and degradation rate have to be controlled in order to guarantee that no harm will be caused to the host tissue. Magnesium alloys have shown great potential as temporary implants for orthopaedic applications. The image shows an innovative magnesium alloy that contains rare-earth elements and degrades forming islands of magnesium. Interestingly, each island contains a small dot in its center. Each dot was found to be rich in rare-earth elements, and is essential in the formation and stability of these islands. But most importantly, the islands can provide a greater surface for bone cell attachment, accelerating tissue recovery. Image captured with a Scanning Electron Microscope at 1000x magnification.
There are other ways to build muscle than going to the gym. Biomaterials and tissue engineering explore the application of different materials to restore function to the body through replacement, repair or regeneration. Intrinsically designed substrates can be used to direct cell growth and stimulate specific differentiation. Nano-scale patterns produced from cellulose can be used to promote the alignment of skeletal muscle cells and encourage myotube formation. Multi-nucleated myotubes are essential to the function of skeletal muscle. The number of nuclei per myotube required is dependent on the function of the muscle. Extra-ocular muscles only need a few nuclei as they are used for fine movements of the eye whereas quadriceps need long myotubes with hundreds of nuclei to support the force required for contraction and lifting those weights. It is from our research in materials, their properties and how we can modify them that we can develop biomaterials suitable to replicate the micro-environments of the human body. The application of biomaterials and tissue engineering furthers our understanding of cell response and tissue regeneration. In this case, contributing to our understanding of skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. Nuclei (cyan), Actin (magenta) Sarcomeric-α-actinin (red)
This is an image of tin sulfide (SnS) material deposited by chemical vapour deposition of xanthate complexes on glass substrate.
This image depicts Masaya volcano in Nicaragua exhaling a long plume of volcanic gas (seen as a brown-red gas rising form the crater). Masaya has been persistently degassing for over 150 years and features in much of the local historical culture. Recently the volcano has been increasing in its output of volcanic gases which has a direct impact on the local population. Crops and cattle suffer and die due to exposure to the toxic gas, making life very difficult for those living nearby. By measuring the amount of gas coming from the volcano we can help to reduce the impact of Masaya, as well as help to predict how the volcano will change in the future.
A photo has been taken during my fieldtrip work in Scarborough, Yorkshire, UK, to build a 3D digital outcrop model.
A violin is placed in an anechoic chamber so that it can be characterised as a digital filter. This filter can then be used with an electric instrument to emulate the sound of the original violin.
‘I make visitors happy with smiles, and sprinkle saliva to them from time to time.’
Two stood-out strangers were captured among the crowd in the heart of Whitworth Park. He was smiling warmly while looking at her and she was obliviously telling him story of how her day went.
My study investigates how innovation occurs in the networks found within Manchester’s creative and digital sector. Manchester is Europe’s second largest creative, digital and media hub and the industry is growing faster in the city than anywhere else in the United Kingdom (UK) (MIDAS report, 2015). Previous research revealed that businesses with close customer, supplier, competitor and research institution relationships are more likely to have higher innovation success rates (Ritter, 2003). One of the six case studies selected was an innovation created by a group of five technical women who wanted to give more girls the opportunity to fall in love with technology the way they had. At the time of development, they discussed the importance of self-expression and how defining music can be for teenagers. The group aspired to teach digital creativity by giving teenagers the tools to express themselves to their favourite songs with an HTML5 music visual creator. Their idea was a music visualisation tool, where customised graphics could be ‘programmed’ to react to audio input, creating a personalised music video which could be shared. It was the first of its kind in the UK. This photograph shows my thirteen-year old daughter experimenting with the tool.
Mitochondria act as central regulators of cell survival through the integration of different metabolic pathways as well as of cell death through the regulation of many molecules involved in apoptosis. Mitochondrial function and dynamics change according to the availability of nutrients, oxygen and upon stimulation by drugs. Therapeutic strategies in cancer target mitochondria in tumour cells to trigger apoptosis. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of aging, and mutations in mitochondrial DNA have been related to various diseases. In macrophages, central cells of the innate immune system, mitochondria play an essential role on their function in pro- and anti-inflammatory contexts. A better understanding of these organelles in macrophages and their role on inflammatory diseases may lead to the discovery of targets to treat many disorders, including cancer. In the image, an activated macrophage presents a mitochondrion undergoing mitophagy, which is a selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy. This can be observed by the double membrane surrounding the mitochondrion. The image was taken with Gatan Orius SC1000 CCD camera using a FEI Tecnai 12 Biotwin microscope.
Any researcher who does fieldwork knows that nature can be unpredictable. Unfortunately I should have known this fact before I started my second field trip to the challenging Arctic region. To put in context, my PhD project focuses in analyzing the Svalbard Ptarmigan locomotion in its natural environment and how they deal with unstable and heterogeneous substrates. This ground-dwelling bird inhabits in Svalbard, an archipelago located 74-81° north within the Arctic Circle. Data collection is done during mid-spring, when the birds still possess white plumage to avoid potential predators or to prevent naive student spotting them. However, this is not enough to mislead the Arctic fox. Arctic foxes in Svalbard rely on Rock Ptarmigans especially during winter, when other sources of food are scarce. And how this relates to my project? Well, unexpectedly during my second field trip I found a third of the birds that were observed one year before. It is clear that several reasons could explain the decrease in Ptarmigan population. Nevertheless, I like to think that perhaps this fluffy fox that came to me voraciously ate the rest of the birds that I couldn’t find.
Biofuels have emerged as the most promising energy alternative to traditional fossil-based fuels, the largest contributors to greenhouse gases in our biosphere. The large-scale commercialisation of biofuels, however, has been heavily restricted because their production is still mostly dependent upon the use of food products, which raise the well-known food vs fuel dilemma. So, what can we do to make biofuel production more sustainable and thus efficiently transition into a bio-based economy? The key to solve this question might rest in tiny and green microorganisms just like the ones inside the bottle you see in this picture: algae. As it turns out, not only do algae feed on carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas), but the inside of their cells is filled with biofuel precursors. Algae can therefore be the future of the biofuel industry, but not just yet, unfortunately. Part of the problem is shown here, although not noticeable at first sight: the green liquid you see here probably looks like a lot, but it actually contains less than 1 gram of algae! In my research, I am developing optimal algal cultivation strategies capable of maximising growth so as to make algal biofuels closer to reality.
York town keeps the historical memory and urban design order that forms a high-quality living, working and leisure area
UDIP student Vienna fieldtrip, This is a capture on the trip to the Schoenen Brunnen. A disabled appreciate street musician's performance with a piece mind. All is warm, piece and quiet.
The blue sea water with delicate yacht, give person a peaceful and comfortable feeling.
An unknown lake in Tebet
This photo was taken in last summer when I just came to Manchester. This is the most beautiful impression of our campus for me.
Half picture is sunshine, half picture is shadow, half picture is tall building, half picture is big tree sun is in the middle ,which is also half place of the picture
6740_Summer June 2018.pdf
6746_Study 1 poster v2.pdf
6863_180108 GO poster biological sciences showcase.pdf
6865_James Cook Abstract.pdf
6927_Oliver Uttley - PSRS poster 2018.pdf
6936_edited_Anna Glew_academic poster1.pdf
6942_Bookie Ezeomah Poster version 2.0.pdf
6909_Abstract for poster.pdf
6966_POSTG SUMMER 2018 Manchester.pdf
6978_Abstract Showcase UoM jun-2018 MMM 10077795 .pdf
6986_Dean Thomas Poster.pdf
6990_Poster sizing up the competition.pdf
7016_Poster PSRS Bayu Wilopo.pdf
6779_ExPRESSing his symptoms_finalshrunk.JPG
6832_Aleksandra Besevic FG.jpg
6770_Ideas in flight Harry Potter PSRS image competition entry 2018.jpg
6746_Study 1 poster v2.pdf
6848_The developing human kidney by S Ammar Raza.jpg
6925_The Hidden Half.tif
6926_Pumping Iron AE.jpg
6970_A vision of the future.jpg
6975_mitophagy - Copy4-final.jpg
6999_stars and cyanobacteria.jpg
7013_Dean Thomas Fluorescent Beads.jpg
7014_Tin sulfide (SnS).tif
* matches any character, eg. post* matches poster, postgrad etc.
- excludes a term, eg. -excluded
+ makes a term essential, eg. +essential
Words with less than 4 characters, or common words such as 'and' or 'the', are ignored