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AL AMIN BIN
Mohamad Shazwan Shah
de Abreu Negreiros
University of Manchester
Postdoctoral research associate
Postgraduate research student
Postgraduate taught student
Arts - Fashion, film, literature and creative writing, music, performance, theatre, visual arts
Business and management - Finance, leisure and tourism, property and construction, retail and consumerism
Chemistry - Organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, chemical engineering, physical chemistry, biochemistry
Computer sciences - Computer modelling
Cultural studies - Identity, migration and mobility, post-colonialism, race and ethnicity
Earth sciences - Environmental studies, physical geography, weather and climate
Economics - Political economy, game theory, finance
Energy - Renewable energy sources, energy efficiency
Engineering - Mechanical engineering, civil engineering, materials
Food - Food production, nutrition, food shortages, diet and consumption
Gender and sexuality
Human geography - Socio-economic development, urban planning, migration and mobility
Human physiology - Cancer sciences, cardiovascular sciences, respiratory sciences, mental health and wellbeing
Imaging and microscopy
Language and linguistics - Classical languages, modern languages, translation, cross-cultural communication
Life sciences - Cells, genetics, microbiology
Materials - Biomaterials, polymers, composites, metals, semiconductors, ceramics
Mathematics - Mathematical modelling, statistics
Media and communication - Citizen media, digital media, social media, film and television studies, journalism
Museums, archives and libraries
Nursing - Midwifery, patient care
Pathology - Immunology and treatment, inflammation and repair
Pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences - Pharmacology, microbiology, nanotechnology, pharmacy practice
Philosophy and ethics
Physics - Astrophysics, quantum physics, mechanics, theoretical physics, condensed matter physics
Politics and political sciences - political economy
Religion and theology - Belief systems
Sociology - Social change, social statistics
Sustainability - Energy and resource management
Systems and networking
War and terrorism
Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health
Faculty of Humanities
Faculty of Science and Engineering
School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science
School of Chemistry
School of Computer Science
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences
School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
School of Materials
School of Mathematics
School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering
School of Physics and Astronomy
School of Biological Sciences
School of Health Sciences
School of Medical Sciences
Alliance Manchester Business School
School of Arts, Languages and Cultures
School of Environment, Education and Development
School of Law
School of Social Sciences
User Authentication on Mobile Device using Touch Dynamics Biometrics
Proliferating Lévy Walkers and Front Propagation
The multilingual mind: cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of a third language
Schema-related predictions and their violation in episodic memory
The development of a questionnaire to investigate the work of EmergeNcy Department PharmAcist PractitionERs in the United Kingdom (ENDPAPER)
Preparation of Graphene-based Membranes for Water Purification
Towards modelling the morphology of particles obtained from spray dried droplets
Exploring the views and experiences of primary healthcare professionals who deliver sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Malaysia.
An exploration of antenatal care provided for women with low-risk pregnancies in Oman: A grounded theory study
Investigating the Interaction of the N-Acetyl Transferase Complex NatA with the Ribosome
An Assessment of Different Blade Tip Timing (BTT) Algorithms Using an Experimentally Validated Finite Element Model Simulator
Modelling the Network of Bioactive Lipids in Human Skin Cells
Foam based synthesis of macro and microporous zeolite monoliths with neutron scattering studies.
Stable carbon isotope analysis of Atlas cedar (Cedrus atlantica) pollen; an indicator of moisture availability, and its potential for climate reconstruction.
I Poems: uncovering meaning in narrative data
The Dialog Mining Method to Improve Service Recovery: A Design Science Approach.
Key stakeholders’ experiences of deaf learners’ inclusion: the case of Malaysia
Adult Omani Women’s Perspectives on Living with Asthma: An Exploratory Study Guided by Constructivist Grounded Theory
The effect of amine fuctionalised graphene on the properties of epoxy
Reliable and Energy Efficient Data Aggregation (R2EDA) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)
Artificial Molecular Machines
Synthesis of New Rhodium and Gold-Fluorinated N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) Complexes
Graphene-reinforced Chitosan/PDMS Morphing Composites
MODIFIED FIBRIN MATRICES FOR WOUND HEALING APPLICATIONS
What Should Be Recycled: An Integrated Model for Product Recycling Desirability
INFLUENCE OF PIT MORPHOLOGY ON CRACK PROPAGATION
Nanoindentation versus Vicker’s Hardness of Hybrid Ceramics.
Significant effect of semiconductor thickness on the reverse current of Schottky diodes
Beyond the right hemisphere: brain mechanisms mediating vocal emotion processing during infancy
Tissue lipidomics using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography coupled to QToF.
Leadership of a Multi-Academy Trust
Navigating the Discourses of Professional Identity: Indonesian Pre-Service English Language Teachers
Tailored synthesis of photopatternable acrylate-based hydrogel for optical metal-clad leaky waveguide (MCLW) biosensors
Revealing the Mechanistic Secrets of Water Oxidation in Photosystem II using Broken Symmetry Density Functional Theory Calculations.
Identification of stress-responsive regulators of protein synthesis using polysome profiling and mass spectrometry
Arabic Calligraphy Text Recognition
Glutamine and glutamate transport into the placenta is related to fetal sex
Novel gene of methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) involved in β-lactam resistance
Detection of Pro-mutagenic O6-alkylguanine Adducts Using the Alkyltransferase-like Protein
Have outcomes of patients with inflammatory arthritis improved in the new millennium? A comparison of the 10 year outcome in cohorts recruited in 1990-4 and 2000-4
Tools and Methodologies for Dynamic Studies in Coupled Critical Infrastructure Systems
‘Characterising Motor Impairments In Autism Using Imitation And Computational Techniques’
Smart Insole Using Temperature Sensing for the Early Detection of Diabetic Foot Ulcers
A review of balance diagnostics for propensity scores
Role of PMCA1 in post-myocardial infarction remodelling
Molecular mechanisms behind the forces driving axon growth
Exploring Arabic Language Teachers’ Experiences and Understandings of ‘living’ Arab Culture as part of their Curriculum Subject: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis
Omani Mothers' Experinces of Caring for children with CP: An Exploratory Qualitative Study
Supplementation with Pitavastatin does not ameliorate the vascular function of chorionic plate arteries.
A global climatology of upper-tropospheric cut-off lows.
Graphene oxide and Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Al Matrix Composites
Multiphase Synchronous Machines for More-Electric Transport
Does caregiver input influence children’s early acquisition of modality?
“Development of an Electrophysiological Model of Teleost Fish Ventricular Myocytes”
COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION OF ATRIAL FIBRILLATION IN SHEEP ATRIA
Health professionals’ experience of diagnosing and managing stroke patients with cognitive impairment: work in progress
Differentiating Between ‘Honour’-Based Violence and Domestic Abuse: Practitioners’ Perspectives
Heart Monitor with Self-Sufficient Battery, through Energy Harvester Method (work in progress)
Perception of Time in the Senses of Hearing, Vision and Touch
Reliability of Synovial Tissue Volume (STV) Assessment in Knee Osteoarthritis
High content screening of patient-derived cell lines highlights the potential of non-standard chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma
Changing patterns of intimate relationships as dementia emerges in Parkinson’s disease
Tech-no or tech-yes? Insights from older adults on digital monitoring of physical and cognitive health.
"Let's lie down because I'm tired of Apple because I'm poorly (be)cause I need to lie down": the influence of pragmatics on children's acquisition of complex causal sentences
Microwave assisted synthesis of Zirconium-based metal organic frameworks: optimisation and gas adsorption
Parallel fitness using barcode sequencing in A. fumigatus: Assessment of the role of Aspergillus kinases in azole resistance and as targets for antifungal drug discovery
Inclusion in strategy work
Performance Modelling and Decision Analysis of Decentralised Green Energy Systems and Their Impact Assessment
Assessing and Improving Trauma Outcomes Prediction Models
Incorporation of iron in ZSM-5 coatings on SiC foams for phenol wastewater treatment
Homelessness and Political Agenda in Southeast Asia: A Case of Malaysia
Direct Strength Method for Design of Thin-Walled Steel Beam-Columns using Equivalent Beam and Equivalent Column Approaches
The contribution of cardiac conduction system development defects in embryonic death in mouse model of stillbirth and unexplained stillbirth in human patients
Patient and Public Perspectives of Community Pharmacies in the UK: A Systematic Review
Building envelope influence in thermal sensations in free-running residences
Exploring the Cultures of Doctoral Supervision
Magnetic Field Sensing around Defects in Ferromagnetic and Non-Ferromagnetic Materials using QWHE Sensors
High-Resolution Spectral Imaging in Liquid Cell Electron Microscopy
Implicit Midpoint Rule (IMR) Stabilisation Algorithm of Adaptive Trapezoidal Rule for Parabolic PDEs.
Synaptic rewiring on SpiNNaker
HEAVY METAL LEVELS IN HUMAN PLACENTAS
Quantitative MALDI mass spectrometry analysis of brain tissues using linear Poisson ICA modelling
Re-engineering Riboswitches as Tuneable Biosensors
The impact of baked food matrices on structural and allergenic properties of food allergens
Effects of zirconia nano-filler on mechanical properties of high impact heat-cured acrylic resin denture base
Prussian blue composite as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells
Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) for Ethylene/Ethane Separation
NOVEL GENE OF METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INVOLVED IN THE REDUCTION OF RESISTANCE IN DIFFERENT BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS
Anion Exchange Constants for Metallated Pentafoil Knots
Reinforced weft knitted preforms for body protection in sportswear
Integrating Advanced Metal Detection and Ground Penetrating Radar for Humanitarian Demining
Modelling Fashion Consumer Emotional and Behavioural Responses to Image Interactivity Technology (IIT) to multi-modal mobile devices
FE Model of Punching Shear in Fire
Measuring Consumer Engagement in the Brain to Online Interactive Shopping Environments
HIV neutralising antibody delivered by gene therapy with a stable retroviral vector encoded in baculovirus expression systems
A Fundamental Study of Microstructural Properties of The Laboratory Made Handsheets
High-Throughput Synthesis of Saccharide-Terminated Catechols for the Biofunctionalization of Nanoparticles
Validation of a method to quantify local scale methane source fluxes
Improved methods for the identification of airborne biological particulate matter using UV-LIF
Molecular Tumour Profiling using Mass Spectrometry Technqiues and translating this into a clinical environment
Deep Learning for Object Detection and Volumetric Inference
Fabrication and functionalisation of biodegradable nanoparticles for biomedical applications
Endocannabinoid role in skin health and disease: Cutaneous inflammation and wound healing
Perspectives of stakeholders towards ESCAPE-pain Programme in Malaysia
Development of Super-hydrophobic Ni-Co Coatings for Corrosion Protection in Hot Saline Environments
Acoustic scattering from arrays and the efficient evaluation of the periodic Green's function
New Coordination Strategy Under Reduced Fault Level as Applied in Transmission Line Protection
Scaffolds of nanofibres hybrids organic-inorganic for bone regeneration
Factors Affecting the Implementation of Advanced Practice Nursing Roles in Clinical Settings: An integrative Literature Review
Early damage detection and monitoring in composites
Novel Platform to Manipulate Majorana Quasi-Particles for Quantum Computation
Cotton sustainability: the Influence of Environmental Labelling on Conscious Consumption
Family carers’ and nurses’ experiences of palliative home care in Saudi Arabia. An Ethnographic research.
Ferroelectric go nuts
AIR POLLUTANTS EXPOSURE AND FUNCTIONAL REPAIR ACTIVITY IN PLACENTA
Binding specificity of the MarR type regulator RdhR Cbdb1625 for chloroaromatic compounds
Toolkits and impact in healthcare research
Design of a peptide-based compound targeted to amyloid β1-42 peptide
Modelling and Simulation of Bio-inspired Morphing Composites
Biocatalysis meets organolithiums: asymmetric synthesis of alpha-tertiary amines
Modelling diurnal, ecological and fluvial carbon exchange dynamics in peatland ecosystems
Is political alienation produced locally? The effects of austerity and the local economy on beliefs about community representation by UK central government
Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Alzheimer’s Disease Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Adaptation of Chronic Wound Isolates to Ionic Silver in Planktonic and Biofilm Growth Modes
A Mixed Methods Study to explore Evidence-Based Intrapartum Care in Maternity Settings in Bahrain
Developing a Decision-Making Framework for Effective Player Recruitment in European Football Clubs
Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing: a systematic review and thematic synthesis of clients' experiences
Optimisation of the Post-Flooding Recovery for Malaysian Universities
Mapping Delivery Process of Planning for the Renewal of Urban Informal Settlements: A Case Study of Iran
Exploring the links between antioxidant systems and ER stress
The influence of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression on an auditory discrimination task performance
Tunable Sieving of Ions Using Graphene Oxide Membranes
Men are all the same
Your Children follow YOU!
Blooming of Zinc Oxide
My name is André: an auto-ethnographic perspective on the world of Female to Male crossdresser escorts in Japan.
Immunofluorescence staining image shows E-cadherin Protein Expression in Normal Tongue (human) Tissue.
Emojis in Research
Who watches whom? Staging identity and image in film festivals in Andalusia, Spain
There’s light at the end of a PhD
Immunofluorescent staining of multicellular cancer spheroids
Alpha & Omega
Emu's at ISIS!?
Timely doctoral completion
Bridge to Kobane
Using Serial-Block Face-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF-SEM) o determine kidney cell morphology in the glomerulus in vivo
Developing better lower limb prosthetics
Alzheimer's Disease: Old Drugs for New Treatments
Minute Lectures: Preventing Cancer Cell Migration
A day in my life as a placenta scientist
My A-Z reference notes from my PhD journey
Woman of a widows savings group in Jinja, Uganda
Breaking through the concrete ceiling: Issues of race in education
Strive and aim for research excellence – By finding your own pathway | A sculpture by Ferdinand Lepcke
A Tale of Two Archives
Up Where We Belong While Remembering Where We Have Begun
Nusantara – Traditional construction in Sampela, Wakatobi National Park, Indonesia
Research in reflection
Concentration, concentration, concentration.
How to dissect a DICOM MRI image using bioinformatics tools
The end of life of used garments
Investigation of the influence of nonwoven architectures on the performance of composites
The effect of diet on the protective properties of the mucus barrier during helminth infection
Tracking language change through historical corpora: the rise of dummy subjects in Icelandic
Towards Creative Mapping Praxis in Belfast
Two Dimensional Electron Gas at the CdO surface
The effect of maternal immune activation on placental gene expression in rats
Heritability and family-based GWAS analyses to discover novel lipidomic biomarkers of cardiovascular disease
Anthropology of "Science Automation"
Graphene membrane array based device for sensor applications
Binding of small molecules by a Cr8 metallacrown
The effect of maternal immune activation on fetal and placental development in a rodent model
Institution framework and emergence of new industries —A comparative analysis of the digital game industry in Mainland of China and Taiwan
The use of mobile devices, particularly the touch screen mobile devices, in handling our daily activities that involve the storage or access of sensitive data (e.g. on-line banking, paperless prescription services, etc.) is becoming very common. This has lead to an increased demand for more secure and usable security services, one of which is user authentication. Currently, mobile device authentication services mainly use a knowledge-based method, e.g. a PIN-based authentication method, and, in some cases, a fingerprint-based authentication method is also supported. The knowledge-based method is vulnerable to impersonation attacks, while the fingerprint-based method can be unreliable sometimes. To overcome these limitations and to make the authentication service more secure and reliable for touch screen mobile device users, we have investigated the use of touch dynamics biometrics in conjunction with a PIN-based authentication method, and demonstrated its benefits in terms of strengthening the security of authentication services for mobile device.
Many motility patterns of animals follow Lévy walks, a class of random walks characterised by a finite velocity of movement for a certain time, after which a new direction is chosen. These running times are sampled from heavy-tailed distributions making the walks non-Markovian (they have memory effects). We develop a model for walkers with birth and death processes, and study the resulting wave of movement from high to low-density areas. From this movement we wish to find the speed at which the front propagates. Our method employs a mesoscopic approach in which the mean number of animals are grouped according to the duration of their current (uninterrupted) path. Hyperbolic scaling is applied to our equations, enabling us to find the front propagation velocity of the system. We find conditions on the birth, death and turning rates for which the rate of propagation equals the upper bound, i.e. the walker’s speed. Conditions are found for which standard diffusion methods overestimate the velocity. The death rate of the walkers is shown to temper the anomalous behaviour of our system. Currently popular (parabolic) scaling methods are shown to overestimate the propagation speeds beyond physical possibilities, which can be avoided with a different scaling approach. The inclusion of birth and death rates in the propagation front changes the long-term dynamics and reconciles the apparent contradiction inherent to the presence of heavy tails in the memory effects.
My poster will give an idea about my work in general and highlighting the contexts that I am studying which are Saudi Arabia and Algeria.
My study explores how previously acquired languages influence the process of learning a new language. Specifically, I work with English learners of French and German. With the help of a number of experiments, including eye-tracking, my aim is to shed some light on the way several languages in our mind might influence one another. In order to do so, I am exploring a concept called “genericity”. Genericity refers to the way we talk about a group, kind or collective rather than an individual. For example, when we say "Dinosaurs are extinct." or "I love pizza.", we don't talk about any specific dinosaurs or pizza, but rather a generic group. Germanic languages (e.g. English and German) and Romance languages (e.g. French) have different means to express this. Therefore, the way in which we deal with it in the different languages we speak can reveal a lot about potential cross-linguistic influence.
The ability to predict future events from previous experience is an important advantage from an evolutionary viewpoint and stands at the basis of some theoretical accounts of the human brain (Friston, 2005; Bar, 2007). Given the importance of such predictions, of special interest is the fate of information that violates them. Such information stands out and attracts more attention, which encourages more elaborative encoding. However, it could also be unreliable in light of many previous experiences and thus discarded. Here we examine the fate of schema-congruent and incongruent information by using multi-element events with strong contextual settings to elicit predictions. Participants encoded pairwise associates in an interleaved manner across four blocks. Between blocks, these associates created events, comprising four elements out of which one was either congruent or incongruent with the context. We then employed an item-recognition test for each element followed by a cued-recall test for its pairwise associate. We found that incongruent elements were less remembered than congruent ones and served as worse cues than their congruent counterparts. Interestingly, the post-violation incongruent pair was better recalled than the congruent one, even though their semantic features were identical. Our results suggest items associated with a prediction error are less likely to be retrieved, contrary to previous views (Van Kesteren et al., 2012). The post-violation finding could be could be related to reduced interference from previous list items.
The ENDPAPER study aims to describe and define the role of Emergency Department Pharmacist Practitioners (EDPPs) in the United Kingdom. The specific study design will require EDPPs to self-report their work using an iPad based Form2 questionnaire every time they contribute to the care of a patient. Each participant will be allocated a 10-day data collection period. Questionnaire development consisted of: observation visits; pre-test interviews and pilot testing. Face validity was tested using the ‘think-aloud’ method. A two-part questionnaire has been successfully produced to capture EDPPs contribution to patient care and the wider emergency department. Pre-testing found that the questionnaire is acceptable to potential ENDPAPER participants. Specifically, its user-responsive nature and the Form2 application were well liked.
Novel polyethersulfone (PES) ultrafiltration mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) containing graphene oxide (GO) nanoplatelets and pore forming agents were prepared via non-solvent phase inversion method (NIPS). Several characterisation techniques were applied to assess their morphology and performance including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle, porosity by gravimetric method, filtration and antifouling properties. Water flux and rejection of a range of solutes were enhanced when compared to the bare PES membrane. The incorporation of just around 0.5 wt% of GO in polymer matrices led to an increase in water flux of 245 LMH with a rejection of 93.3% of bovine serum albumin, 97.6% of sunset yellow dye, and 52.9% of acridine orange dye. Leaching test of GO confirmed the stability of GO in the polymer matrix.
This PhD project focuses on a multiscale investigation of spray drying for pharmaceutical applications. The continuous mode of operation utilised by spray drying processes to produce particulate materials conventionally produced in batch modes makes it an ever attractive proposition to particle production. Despite benefits of spray drying operation, the physical processes central to its performance is relatively poorly understood leading to difficulty in developing models to appropriately predict industrial operations. As a first step, we present here an assessment of modelling methodologies that allow to describe the morphology of particles as they are obtained when drying solution droplets. The conceptual phases of this process will be detailed and a population balance model that describes the mass and heat transfer from droplets to a surrounding hot gas phase is presented. As an outlook, a methodology for single droplet drying experiments is presented that will allow to investigate the validity of the modelling results in the future.
A major contributor to the regulation of inflammation is a class of potent bioactive lipid mediators, known as the eicosanoids. The family of eicosanoids includes more than 100 bioactive lipid species, including prostaglandins and leukotrienes. Here, we introduce a multi-disciplinary approach that combines targeted lipidomics with mechanistic mathematical modelling to represent the dynamic network of eicosanoids in resident skin cells. The complex network has been described in a kinetic model and to validate the model, a quantitative profile of lipid mediators has been measured using LC-MS/MS. The results of the study will allow for more targeted experiments to be designed and will permit a detailed mapping of the lipid networks contributing to skin inflammation.
Porous materials have a range of significant applications, including energy storage and conversion, absorption and separation, as well as catalysis. The novel synthesis and characterisation of zeolite foam monolith structures, both, ZSM-5 and TS-1, is here in reported. These structures display micro-porosity, very small nm scale pores in the structure, and macro-porosity, much larger pores that are visible at the cm scale. In situ deposition of deuterated benzene into the pores of the structure has been observed via neutron scattering, following the aim of this research - to use neutron diffraction to bridge the knowledge gap between understanding the properties of liquids confined in the pores of typical heterogeneous catalysts and their applications.
Background: Information about contraception and safe sexual practices are still not delivered formally to adolescents in health clinics and schools in Malaysia. Concurrently, unintended teenage pregnancy and the practice of ‘baby dumping’ are serious public health issues amongst young unmarried women. Research in other countries has highlighted the effectiveness of SRH services to adolescents including comprehensive sexual education and friendly services. Little is known about the provision of SRH for this group since this has not been examined in-depth in a Malaysian context. Method: This qualitative study was informed by a pragmatic approach. Thirty-one HCPs were interviewed to understand their experiences dealing with adolescents also views on current SRH provision. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. I also critiqued the SRH educational material that is intended to be used with the adolescent by HCPs. Result: The findings indicate that SRH provision to adolescents was restricted by the socio-cultural and religious beliefs which impact HCPs’ practice and the quality of service delivered to adolescents in Malaysia. It shows that current SRH provision was given low priority which this situation deprived adolescents of getting accurate information to enable them to make informed choices and decision regarding their SRH. Conclusion: Access to SRH services by adolescents has been affected by the constrains in service delivery and underdevelopment of SRH provision. The evidence from this study can assist in the development of the strategies to improve the quality of care and facilitate the changes in SRH provision to adolescents in Malaysia.
Background: Regular attendance for antenatal care during pregnancy is important to ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. Antenatal care attendance for at least one visit in Oman reached more than 99% in 2013. However, 35% of women attended the first visit late in pregnancy and 21% did not attend for the recommended 4-6 visits during their pregnancies. This low attendance suggested a need to explore the experiences and issues surrounds antenatal care in Oman to gain an in-depth insight to enable the generation of theory that explains the perceptions of pregnant women and their health care providers. Methodology and Methods: An exploratory qualitative design informed by grounded theory methodology. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fifteen pregnant women and ten health care providers. Data analysis followed a constructivist grounded theory analytical framework that consists of initial, focused and theoretical coding. Analysis directed a subsequent theoretical sample which included non-participant observations of the care of thirteen pregnant women during their appointments to explore wider context of care. Findings: The preliminary emergent core category, entitled ‘feeling obligated to protect the fetus” explains the views of the pregnant women and their health care providers about the importance of antenatal care. The core category “feeling obligated to care for the fetus” was found to consist of five interrelated categories: perceived benefits and value of antenatal care, the timing of the first antenatal visit, experiences of antenatal care delivery, women-carer interaction during antenatal care, supplementary use of private healthcare. Conclusion: The study is providing an in-depth understanding of social processes and issues surrounding antenatal care for low-risk pregnancies in Oman, which is important to policy-makers and program managers in revising strategies to improve care for pregnant women in future.
N-terminal acetylation (NTA) is a common protein modification that affects 80-90% of the human proteome. NTA is the addition of an acetyl group to the N-terminus of the protein co- or post-translationally. N-acetyl transferases (NatA-F) catalyse this reaction. NatA is the major isoform and is known to interact quantitatively with the ribosome during translation. The aims of this project are to identify the binding site of NatA on the ribosome, how the interaction between the two is regulated and its functional significance. Our results show that the positively charged N-terminus of Naa15, a non-catalytic subunit of NatA, binds the NatA complex close to the ribosomal exit tunnel at universal adaptor site 2. Finally, we show that ribosome binding is important for NatA’s functions such as protein degradation.
Blade Tip Timing (BTT) is a technology concerned with the estimation of both frequency and amplitude of rotating blades. A BTT system comprises two main parts: (a) the arrival time measurement system, and (b) the analysis algorithms. Simulators play an important role in the development of the analysis algorithms since they generate blade tip displacement data from the simulated blade vibration under controlled conditions. This enables an assessment of the performance of the different algorithms with respect to their ability to accurately reproduce the original simulated vibration. Such an assessment is usually not possible with real engine. Most simulators used in the literature are based on a simple spring-mass-damper model to determine the vibration. In this work, a more realistic simulator based on experimentally validated Finite Element (FE) model of a bladed disc (blisk) is presented.
It is well known that the surface chemistry of graphene is one of the most critical factors for the property enhancement of polymer composites, since it determines the inter-facial interaction between the nano-filler and polymeric matrix. In this work, graphene oxide were amine functionalised by two approaches for epoxy composites. XPS and XRD have been utilized to compare the effect of amine functionalisation. DMTA and solvent uptake experiments have been performed on the nano composites to investigate the thermal and anti-corrosion properties.
Morphing materials can change shapes actively in response to external stimuli. Inspired by the biological morphing pine cone scale structure, bilayered graphene-reinforced chitosan/polydimethylsiloxane morphing composites were designed on the basis of different coefficient of thermal expansion in different layers. The synthetic graphene-reinforced chitosan/PDMS composites achieve rapid, reversible and repeatable morphing behaviours under the induction of thermal or photo-thermal triggers.
Stable carbon isotope analysis on plant tissue can be used for a range of applications, including climate reconstruction of past environments due to the strong relationship between the carbon isotopic composition of plant tissues and moisture availability. Equally, pollen exhibits a similar relationship, and due to its highly resistant nature, preserving in geological archives for millions of years, allows for very long-term climate reconstruction. The Atlas cedar is a mountain conifer endemic to Morocco and Algeria, growing across the Rif, Middle and High Atlas mountain ranges at elevations of 1400-2600 m. Atlas cedar is sensitive to climate, particularly moisture availability, and is threatened by future climate change. It has been present in Morocco since at least the last glacial maximum, with evidence of a southern European presence millions of years ago. We analysed the stable carbon isotope composition of modern pollen samples from 93 Atlas cedar trees across the Middle Atlas, Morocco and a wider environmental gradient including Europe and USA. We find a strong relationship with summer precipitation (r2 = 0.63, p < 0.0001) and aridity (r2 = 0.86, p < 0.001). measured using the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), suggesting that pollen records the climate signal during its summer development period. These relationships suggest that fossil pollen could be used for quantitative climate reconstructions in the region, and work has started on two case studies to test the application of this technique. Pollen from a cedar-rich terrestrial sediment archive located at Col Du Zad, and a lake archive from Sidi Ali will be analysed to understand the shifting climate in Morocco of the past 10,000 years, with a view to improve our understanding of climate change impacts.
My poster presentation will outline how I have used I-poems to analyse complex narrative interview data in order to uncover the meaning of the stories told. This emergent method of data analysis (Hesse-Biber & Leavy 2008) originated from the work of Debold and was then further developed by Gilligan et al. (2003) to provide a method that would be able to listen to and present the different voices of an individual. The data analysed is from my Naturalistic inquiry (Lincoln & Guba 1985) which aims to listen to and report the voices of female students from China who are studying on a PGT programme in the UK. I wanted to ensure that the student voices were heard and that I did not just receive answers to my questions. I feel that I-poems have been a very useful method to allow me to achieve this.
The dialogs generated during complaint handling are of practical value that allows companies to perform the internal process recovery and improve customer satisfaction in the customer recovery. Yet, the widely-used qualitative discourse analysis can only approach a limited volume of data in an observed time period. Also, insights into analyzing the interactive dialogs are centered more at the methodology than the theoretical framework. To bridge these research gaps, a dialog mining artifact is developed following a design science research method. The artifact connects data analytics (text mining and process mining) with the three theoretical dimensions of linguistic/semantic, process and relationship. To validate the usability of the artifact, a case study based on a U.K. grocery retailer’s Twitter customer care was used to demonstrate problem-solving solutions to process recovery and customer recovery. In this way, the artifact manifests its value to service recovery practice, data analytical methodology and marketing theory.
This paper presents the findings of the first empirical study of the inclusion of deaf learners in Malaysian schools. Advancements in the use of audiological technology in Malaysia has meant that an increasing number of deaf learners have both hearing aids and cochlear implants, and as such are now developing spoken language. This is a significant change for the Malaysian education system, as teachers of the deaf previously were trained to teach deaf learners using sign language. In turn, this change has led to a larger number of deaf learners being educated in mainstream classrooms with their hearing peers, which has been done as part of a wider agenda to eliminate discrimination against people with disabilities in society. Interviews were conducted with five school leaders, five mainstream teachers, five teachers of the deaf, three teaching assistants, seven parents of deaf learners, seven deaf learners and three hearing classmates, in three primary schools in Malaysia. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed interview data. The findings revealed that the school stakeholders’ expertise, confidence, communication and collaborations between the various stakeholders is missing. While there are some improvements in the support provided to the deaf learners, this study highlights that the right for deaf learners to be educated in an inclusive environment is not being realised in a meaningful way. The study will discuss what could enrich the prospects for future generations of deaf learners in Malaysia and other countries with similar current and future challenges.
Mechanical properties testing of some newly emerged CAD/CAM indirect aesthetic tooth restorations
The research aims to investigate the discourses of English language teachers’ professional identity in Indonesia and how these discourses contribute in the forming the professional identity of the teachers during practicum. Specific attention will be given to the technological pedagogical identity of the teachers, evaluation of the Indonesia's National Qualification Framework, and Teacher's Education program curriculum.
Background: The literature indicates that asthma morbidity in women is increasing. Women report a greater severity of asthma symptoms and their utilization of health services is higher. A global burden of asthma summary recorded significant evidence of a high prevalence of asthma in the Middle East region. In Gulf countries and in Oman in particular, no study was found that explored perception of women’s experience of living with chronic illness in general and asthma specifically. Aim: The study is conducted to explore the experience of adult Omani women living with asthma disease. Method: A qualitative research design, driven by constructivist grounded theory methodology was used. 29 Adult Omani women with moderate to severe asthma were recruited through purposive sampling from three health care institutions in Oman. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Theoretical sampling was employed as the categories emerged from the data analysis. Audio-recordings were transcribed verbatim and translated to English. Data was managed using NVivo 11.0. Data analysis: Charmaz’s grounded theory approach was used to transcribe and analyse the data. The emerging categories are as follows: socially constructing the experience of living with asthma, women’s roles and identities, conceptualising asthma management, and reconstructing the coping strategies. From the perspective of Omani women, several themes were to be found unique. These are: bukhoor is a trigger that doesn't like to avoid, fear of asthma inhalers. Conclusion: The aim of this study was to provide better insight and understanding of the experience of living with asthma for Omani women. Understanding these participants’ experience might promote improved support for women with asthma in Oman and the Gulf region. Term meaning Bukhoor are scented bricks to perfume the home and clothing with a rich thick smoke.
Data aggregation is widely applied in hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to reduce energy costs during a data collection process. A number of data aggregation methods have been proposed in literature to achieve reliable and energy efficient data aggregation. These methods, depending on the number of aggregators used, may be classified into three data aggregation approaches as: Single-Aggregator based Uni-Cast (SAUC) approach, Multi-Aggregator based Uni-Cast (MAUC) approach and Multi-Aggregator based Broad-Cast (MABC) approach. Among the three approaches, there is a trade-off between achieving data delivery reliability and energy efficiency. In our research, we investigate an optimal trade-off between data delivery reliability and energy efficiency properties of the different approaches by using an intermediate approach, called the Multi-Aggregator based Multi-Cast (MAMC) data aggregation approach. With MAMC, the number of aggregators are adjusted dynamically based on the network conditions so that reliable and energy efficient data aggregation is possible under the different network conditions.
The synthesis of polymers (such as cling film or polyester clothes) with defined monomer sequences is not currently possible. By utilising a molecular machine, we will be able to synthesise sequence-defined polymers. All of biology is based on just four sequence polymers: DNA, RNA, proteins and sugars. We expect artificial sequence polymers to ultimately have as diverse properties as biopolymers. I have created a Molecular Synthesiser, capable of creating linking together monomers in a sequence specific manner and creating an artificial sequence polymer. Ultimately, we expect these artificial sequence polymers to have uses as diverse those Nature has designed for proteins (which may take the form of spiders silk, insulin or muscles!). In biology, molecular machines are used to construct the proteins that make up our body, to transport cargo around our cells, and to copy our genetic code, allowing us to grow. My research attempts to apply the principles used by biological machines to perform useful work with artificial systems. The widespread use of molecular-level motion in nature suggests that great rewards could come from bridging the gap between current synthetic molecular systems - which rely on electronic and chemical effects - and the machines of the macroscopic world, which utilise the synchronised movements of smaller parts.
N-Heterocyclic Carbenes (NHCs) are excellent ancillary ligands which have come to replace phosphines in many organometallic and organic reactions. This is reflected by the abundance of publications on NHCs. However, the number of reported fluorinated NHCs is very limited.1,2 This motivated us to explore the area of fluorinated NHCs in order to study the steric and electronic effects of having fluorinated groups on NHC ligand-transition metal system. A series of new fluorinated N-heterocyclic carbene salts (NHC = N,N’-Bis(fluorophenyl)imidazolium tetrafluoroborate, have been synthesised successfully. All of these fluorinated NHC salts provide a new ligand platform for precursors which are then bonded to some late transition metals complexes. These fluorinated NHC-transition metal complexes have been synthesised and characterised successfully, including in some cases, by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. Their applications in catalysis have been tested and the efficiency of these fluorinated NHC transition complexes have been compared with the non-fluorinated counterparts, in order to study the impact of having fluorine substituents on the NHCs.
The poster aims to familiarise the audience with my exploratory doctoral research into the subjective experiences and understandings of Arabic language teachers with regard to how they ‘live’ Arab Culture as a part of their curriculum subject. I will present a short contextual introduction, a description of the methodology and its relevance, as well as some findings and an indication of the direction of the discussion. The research was conducted with six teachers from mainstream secondary schools in England who teach GCSE Arabic as part of their schools’ timetabled curricula. The methodology used was interpretive phenomenological analysis, which allowed me to explore the subjective perceptual processes of each teacher.
In wound healing applications, fibrin sealants are considered ease-to-use glue compared to sutures/staples. The advantage of using fibrin sealants resides on fast healing and minimum scarring; a process that is driven by fibroblasts migration to the wound bed (where the scar starts to be formed) and that is also influenced by the mechanical and structural properties of the final hydrogel. In this work, we incorporate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-peptide conjugates into the fibrin network, as a macromolecular model compound to modulate the matrix properties through altered fibrin polymerisation. The inclusion of specific PEG-peptide conjugates in fibrin gels returned a greater fibroblasts migration rate (and lower stiffness) compared to control gels. These results suggest that modulation of thrombin-mediated polymerisation can improve the migration of fibroblasts in fibrin gels, a condition that will potentially lead to speed-up wound healing and reduced scarring side effects.
This research was focused on developing a new scientific approach for prioritising recycling of end-of-life products in a circular economy. To date, product complexity based on the mixture of materials has been used as a predictor of what gets recycled. While the separation of materials that make up a product has been modelled as a measure of product complexity, this does not taken into account the benefits and considerations in recycling products. In this paper, a new agenda and approach to prioritise the recycling of products was developed based on a recycling desirability index. The material mixing complexity measure was inverted into a simplicity index and then extended by modelling the security index for the mix of materials and the technological readiness level of recycling technologies. The extended model is proposed as an integrated measure of the desirability of recycling of end-of-life products. From this analysis, an apparent recycling desirability boundary, enabling products to be prioritised for recycling, was developed. This model and analysis can be used as an information source in developing policies and product recycling priorities.
PITTING CORROSION is a damage mechanism that can occur with many metal alloys. The process can be defined as the accelerated local dissolution of metal occurring as the result of the breakdown of the otherwise protective passive film on the metal surface. This mode of localised corrosion leads to production of small cavities (‘pits’) on the surface of the material. Pitting is difficult to detect, predict and design against . The morphology of pits may vary considerably, in terms of geometric shape and depth-width ratio. Pits propagate with complex directionality, as a function of local stress, microstructure and chemistry. Pits act as local stress raisers in a material and hence can participate in the failure of a material through fatigue and/or stress corrosion cracking (SCC) mechanisms. The aim of this project is to conduct 4D micro computed tomographic studies of the propagation of cracking emanating from pits of different morphology.
Oxide-semiconductors – particularly indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) – have emerged as both an attractive alternative to amorphous-Si for many current applications and as vehicles for the realisation of entirely novel applications, including large area transparent and flexible electronics. Recently, oxide-semiconductor TFTs and Schottky diodes have demonstrated GHz operation – further confirming their suitability for future electronics. The scalability of TFTs has been well documented – particularly the short-channel effect – but there has been very little discussion of the effects of device scalability in Schottky diodes. In published literature on IGZO Schottky diodes there is a noticeable dependence of the current on the thickness of the semiconductor layer. This phenomenon remains largely undiscussed even though it can cause the reverse current to vary over orders of magnitude. A combination of simulations and experiments has been carried out to demonstrate such an effect. Our work indicates the important role of non-uniform Schottky interface properties and may have implications for the fabrication of large scale thin-film electronics.
Vocal emotional expressions represent salient social signals serving adaptive functions in typical development. Human voices are processed in specialised brain regions in the adult and infant brain. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) research using speech (German word) stimuli has indicated that vocal emotion differentially modulates voice processing in the right hemisphere in 7-month-infants. However, little is known about the developmental origins of emotion processing from pure prosody (non-linguistic vocalisations) in the infant brain. The present study examined Six-month-old infant brain responses to pure emotional prosody by using near-infrared spectroscopy. Our findings suggests that very early in development left temporal regions may specialise in processing vocal anger while right temporal regions may specialise in processing happy prosody.
The poster concentrates on microstructural characterisation and mechanical property for Aluminium matrix composite reinforced with graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes.
Lipids are a class of biomolecules important for the structure and function of the skin, cell signalling, immune and inflammatory responses and energy storage but can also contribute to skin pathologies. Psoriasis is an auto-immune condition and although the direct cause of psoriasis remains unknown, there is enough evidence to suggest involvement of lipids. Supercritical fluid chromatography (UPC2) is a hybrid of normal and reverse phase (RP) chromatography offering separation of molecules typically difficult to separate by RP chromatography for due to their hydrophobic nature. In this project, the lipid profiles will be explored using UPC2 coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry. The results of this project will generate new information of the involvement of lipids in psoriasis and support the development of novel therapies, whereas developed protocols can be applied to study lipids involvement in any other diseases.
The research examines how Executive Head teachers do leadership within a multi-academy trust. Given the proliferation of academies within the education system in England the nature of headship has become embedded within the neoliberal project of marketization and the commodification of education. This has resulted in the role of the head teacher shifting from being the leading professional located in one school to becoming an Executive Headteacher or ‘corporate actor’ overseeing several different schools. These groups of schools often form Multi-Academy Trusts. Particular models of leader, leading and leadership have been developed and imported from the corporate world in order to shape and facilitate this change in identity and professional practice. The project is the first to undertake in depth embedded research with a Chief Executive Head teacher of a MAT over a period of one year. Using an ethnographic approach, the ontology of leadership is examined within such a ‘multi--academy’ setting. Using observation and interview data, and theorised through Arendtian thinking tools, the story is told of how one Chief Executive Headteacher enacted their role within the MAT.
MCLW is an optical biosensor consisting of nanometer metal layers and a dielectric waveguide on a glass substrate. This label-free sensor measures refractive index changes present in a waveguide layer. We have so far demonstrated that waveguides made of naturally occurring hydrogels such as agarose provide a 3D polymer network filled with aqueous fluids, resulting in sensors with improved sensitivity and limit of detection. This work reveals the potential of synthetic acrylate based-hydrogel consisting of monomer; PEG methyl ether acrylate, acrylate-PEG2000-NHS linker and a cross-linker; PEG diacrylate as a waveguide material within the MCLW device. The sensing surface architecture of acrylate-based hydrogel is optimised with well-controlled reactive groups so that a biorecognition element can immobilise within the hydrogel matrix. The sensor, consisting of the acrylate hydrogel waveguide layer deposited on the 9.5nm Ti-coated glass substrate was spun at 6000rpm for 3 minutes, exhibited the same response to solutions of the same RI consisting of small and large analytes. Subsequently, the absorption of the bromothymol blue dye, in the range of 0.235 to 0.685 (AU) indicated that the hydrogel is highly porous.The results validate the hydrogel was highly porous, thus enhancing the sensor sensitivity up to 11% versus the reported agarose-based hydrogel for detection of 1% glycerol in PBS (n=1.3361). The sensor also demonstrates the possibility for the quantitative measurement of the pathogenic bacteria for real-time monitoring application as 1% v/v of NHS ester shown to activate the hydrogel waveguide layer using detection of BSA as high molecular weight analyte.
The catalytic mechanism to carry out water splitting by the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) located within Photosystem II is still largely unknown. Recent crystallographic studies have made it possible to explore this mechanism further through computational techniques. In this study, broken symmetry density functional theory (BS-DFT) calculations have been performed to model dioxygen formation from water in Photosystem II. Large models of the OEC have been optimised at each stage of the Kok cycle in both the native form and with replacement of Ca by Sr. Sr is the only other ion capable of producing oxygen from within this complex although at a reduced rate. Following substitution with Sr the mechanism by which O-O bond formation occurs involves a different water substrate, providing potential reasoning for the slower rate. These key mechanistic characteristics are supported by calculated EPR properties showing good agreement with experimental data.
Yeast cells respond to a number of stresses by globally inhibiting protein synthesis, which promotes survival by reducing the energy and nutrient demands of cells and avoiding producing faulty proteins. Conversely, translation of some mRNAs is upregulated to counter stress: for example, antioxidant genes are induced to remove toxic reactive oxygen species from cells. Many RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are involved in regulating the fate of cellular mRNAs, and some are involved in the precise control of gene expression required for stress responses. We are aiming to identify RBPs involved in stress-dependent translational regulation. mRNAs were separated by their number of associated ribosomes – a proxy for translational activity – and proteins associated with each population were analysed by mass spectrometry. These protein complements are being compared between unstressed and stressed conditions to identify those that remain ribosome-associated during stress. Comparing different adverse conditions will allow the identification of shared and stress-specific regulators.
The objective of this study is to explore relationship satisfaction and aspects of intimacy in female partners of people with cognitive impairment associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD) using qualitative methods. The attached pdf includes the abstract of this study.
Analysis of data from three studies to evaluate the feasibility of using technology for the detection and monitoring of neurodegenerative disease.
Metal-Organic Framework (MOFs) are crystalline porous materials consisting of metal nodes linked with organic ligands. Recently UiO MOFs, thanks to their exceptional thermal and chemical stabilities, have attracted great interest for applications in gas adsorption, storage and separation and catalysis. To date, UiO MOFs have been mostly synthesised using solvothermal method that requires lengthy reaction time and high energy input. In this study, UiO-67 was synthesised by a microwave-assisted method for the first time. The resulting materials were fully characterised and their morphology and textural properties were compared with those synthesised solvothermally.
The Arabic Language originally had an old fashioned form of writing which is found in historical data and the Holy Quran. These types of writing styles in Arabic texts give a degree of difficulty in segmenting the letters and reading the text. This art form is still used today for various purposes in drawing and calligraphy. Since it originated a long time ago, it is mostly reflected in Islamic culture and the use of quotes from the Holy Quran. The calligraphy shows a different representation of Arabic texts in a more cursive style and a mixture of complex constructed word forms. The challenges of this type of text motivates the discovery of a way to simplify reading and to digitalise it more easily. The study is constructed to achieve a solution for reading such calligraphies computationally and for determining the text that they represent. This project combines powerful methods in artificial intelligence. The development system is a mixture of image processing, text mining and machine learning methods. To enable the system to accurately predict and recognise the text in the calligraphy requires assistance from a suitable Arabic corpus and training files. Such a recognition systems stage has three main steps. The first is pre-processing, which involves mainly binarisation, cleaning and dealing with the Arabic calligraphy as an image. This is followed by segmentation and text feature extraction. Finally, there is post-processing, where the extracted words are checked and validated with the system’s supporting corpus. These steps lead to a model of machine learning to build up a prediction system. It is suggested that the starting method is a neural network as this is used more in pattern matching techniques.
Adequate placental amino acid uptake is essential for appropriate fetal growth. Male fetuses are heavier than females at birth relative to placental size, suggesting male placentas are more efficient. Here we compare amino acid transport (glutamine and glutamate) in male and female placentas to test the hypothesis that, in normal pregnancy, placental amino acid uptake is greater in males. Transporter-mediated uptake (pmol/mg tissue protein) of 14C-glutamine and 14C-glutamate was higher in male versus female placentas (P<0.01; P<0.001), supporting the hypothesis that, in normal pregnancy, male placentas are more efficient in terms of nutrient transport. These findings suggest that it may be important to consider sex differences in placental function/nutrient transport in normal pregnancy and in pregnancy pathology.
Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is second on the WHO list of high priority pathogens to which new antimicrobials are required urgently. The research on MRSA is focusing on identifying novel targets for new medicines that would help to minimise the growing crisis of MRSA resistance to all antibiotics in clinical use. Although PBP2a is the major factor causing β-lactams resistance, it requires the collaborative involvement of auxiliary genes to confer the resistance. These genes are usually involved in some cellular physiological functions e.g. cell wall synthesis, iron homoeostasis inside the cell. One of the most significant ways to identify such new genes is by constructing transposon mutagenesis libraries with insertion of transposons randomly followed by screening of the mutants for any reduction in the MIC levels. In our research we were able to identify few genes required for the resistance as evidenced by reduced MIC levels in the mutants with inactivated alleles.
Alkylating agents are highly reactive molecules that cause cell death by binding and adding an alkyl group to DNA. Humans are widely exposed to these compounds either directly, for example via cigarette smoke or indirectly via in situ formation within the stomach, colon or at sites of inflammation. Such compounds have been shown to be carcinogenic in all animal species so far examined causing a variety of tumours including those of the breast but it is currently unclear to what extent alkylating agents may play a role in human cancers due to difficulties in assessing human exposure. The aim of this work is to develop a method to assess exposure to DNA alkylating agents and apply it to the analysis of human breast DNA. Using alkyltransferase-like protein (ATL) which binds to all O6-alkylguanine adducts (O6-alkGs) so far studied, an immunoslot blot (ISB) assay has been developed using temozolomide treated calf thymus DNA (TMZ-CTDNA). O6-methylguanine (O6-meG) was detected via anti-Atl1 binding to a maltose-binding protein (MBP)-Atl1 fusion protein or more directly via a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-MBP-Atl1 conjugated antibody. O6-meG in TMZ-CT DNA was able to be detected by HRP-MBP-ATl1 at a lowest concentration of ~ 2.8 fmoles/μg of DNA. Current data thus shows the potential usefulness of HRP-MBP-Atl1 in detecting O6-alkGs via identifying Atl1 bound to the adducts. Further work is in progress to increase assay sensitivity to allow detection of O6-alkGs at even lower levels in small amounts of human DNA.
Traditional approach to strategy work has been linear and guided by top managers, focused on the outcomes such as strategic plans or financial projections. Natural imperfection of plans produces an unrealized and an emergent strategy, which has opened space for a humanistic approach called “strategy as practice”, which conceives strategy not as something that organisations have, but something that organisations. However, this social interaction has been focused on elites. A study of inclusion in strategy work could open new paths for a wider an eventually more realistic approach of strategy work.
Fe-ZSM-5 coatings on β-SiC open-cell foams are hydrothermally synthesized to create hierarchical structured catalyst. Crystal features, morphology and nature of the active sites of the material are characterized. A structured reactor is designed to test the catalytic performance of the material in phenol wastewater treatment and effect of nature of the active sites (extra-framework and framework Fe ions) during the reaction is investigated. In addition, dynamics of phenol degradation with Fe-ZSM-5 coatings is studied and comparisons between the macrocellular structure reactor and traditional reactors are discussed.
Homelessness and Political Agenda in Southeast Asia: A Case of Malaysia
New treatments have improved the lives of patients with inflammatory arthritis over the past 20 years. However, there is limited evidence on whether long-term outcomes have changed. This study compared two groups of patients recruited 10 years apart to the Norfolk Arthritis Register. Patients in Cohort 1 (C1) were recruited from 1990-4 and patients in Cohort 2 (C2) were recruited from 2000-4. Both cohorts were followed for 10 years. The mortality, disease activity and disability of the two cohorts were compared. In total 1653 patients were recruited (C1=1022, C2=631). Patients in C2 had a lower risk of mortality compared to C1 after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore patients in C2 had lower disease activity, as measured by a swollen joint count, compared to C1 patients. However, patients in C1 and C2 had comparable disability over the course of 10 years. This could potentially be due to C2 patients have increased expectations of the efficacy of therapy, which inflated self-reported levels of disability.
Integration of critical infrastructures contributes to an increasing complexity and heterogeneity of their interdependencies, which results in a more detailed analysis process with emphasis on a certain aspect of the interactions such as cascading effects rather than the overarching system modelling and simulation. When external disturbances like natural disasters and intentional attacks take place, induced cascading failures are more likely to happen in large scale than they used to be. Their propagation paths and time-dependent behaviours are largely unknown to the area researchers and post-disaster consequences are rather difficult to quantify. This paper is presenting critical appraisal of existing methodologies for modelling cascading failures in interconnected systems. General explanations of the most widely used methodologies are firstly illustrated with the emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages and with the aim of choosing appropriate modelling and simulation methods for study of cascading failures in coupled electric power grids and telecommunication systems.
Autism is primarily identified by social and communication deficits. However, a substantial amount of evidence indicates that motor difficulties are also common in autism. Balance, gait, praxis and visuomotor functions are implicated. Although, differences in motor characteristics between autistic and non-autistic groups show large effect sizes the evidence is not always consistent and it is still not clear how specific and universal motor function impairments are. More uniform evidence exists showing that autistic individuals have difficulties with imitating observed motor actions. In this project, I will develop a task combining imitation and motor function. Motion tracking will be employed to collect accurate, quantitative movement data. Then statistical, feature selection and machine learning methods will be applied to identify the most discriminative kinematic parameters (e.g. amplitude, velocity) that optimally describe the characteristics of different groups. This potentially will provide a biomarker for autism identification and help to better characterise motor impairments.
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) develop in over 7% of diabetes cases in the UK. DFUs can necessitate a lower limb amputation, with an amputation every 30 seconds worldwide as a result of DFUs. Presently, at risk patients visit a doctor to have their feet checked for early signs of ulceration. However, this treatment can result in ulceration being detected after it has passed the stage where the patient can recover. In order to try and reduce this, an ultra-low power, miniaturised, clinical grade wearable insole has been designed that can detect temperature differences between specific sites on the foot and identical sites on opposite feet. Research has shown that temperature differences of more than 2.2°C across these areas may indicate development of a DFU. The designed device has been tested and meets the performance requirements, and is now ready to be used in clinical trials with our partners.
‘Propensity scores’ are a statistical tool used to account for biases that arise in observational data. However, they are often poorly implemented in the applied literature, hence the results obtained using them may not be valid. In order for researchers to convince their readers that they have obtained valid results, diagnostics are required to justify that the propensity score has been used correctly. Unfortunately, it is not known how best to perform diagnostics in a propensity score analysis. A literature review was conducted to investigate strengths and weaknesses of currently available diagnostics and which diagnostics are recommended in the methodological literature. A search in Medline and Embase returned 52 methodological articles concerned with propensity score diagnostics. Results indicated that there are conflicting recommendations in the methodological literature and few appropriate diagnostics available. There is a need for new propensity score diagnostics and clear guidelines on how to implement them.
A new form of liquid cell allows for the high-resolution imaging and spectral mapping of specimens in a liquid environment. This work involves the in situ synthesis and study of complex nanocrystal systems using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The elemental distribution in nanoalloys is mapped with resolution on the order of a nanometre, an unprecedented feat for liquid-phase EDX, and the growth dynamics of nanoparticles in solution characterised using STEM and advanced image processing. These techniques are important for the development of designed catalysts, with further applications in the imaging of biological samples in hydrated conditions and understanding the kinetics of nanostructure formation.
The trapezoidal rule (TR) is well known for its A-stability and second order accuracy. Nevertheless, it is prone to ringing instability and induces solutions to stall. We present a new stabilisation technique to suppress the ringing for an adaptive time-stepping trapezoidal rule. This technique introduces another implicit second order method which is implicit midpoint rule (IMR) to stabilise the adaptive TR. The TIMR (trapezoidal rule - implicit midpoint rule) performance is assessed and compared with two adaptive TR schemes from the literature. It is demonstrated that the new stabilised adaptive TR gives excellent performance in comparison with the other two methods.
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the UK’s biggest killer. This study aims to investigate the potential role of PMCA1 in the post-MI remodelling process. MI alongside a sham procedure was induced in either wild type or mice expressing a heterozygous mutation of the PMCA1 gene (PMCA1Ht). To characterise the cardiac response, electrocardiography, echocardiography, haemodynamics and histological analysis were performed. Overall survival was significantly lower in WT-MI mice and a significant difference in infarct size was observed when WT-MI hearts were compared to their PMCA1Ht counterparts. Additionally, the WT-MI hearts were significantly more hypertrophic when compared to their PMCA1Ht counterparts. Moreover, ECG revealed significantly longer QT intervals and considerably more extra-systolic events among the WT-MI mice. Heterozygous deletion of PMCA1 might serve a protective role in the heart post-MI. Future work will aim to elucidate the mechanism producing this phenotype.
Neurons, the cells of the nervous system, have long and slender protrusions called axons, which work as cables that wire the brain and the body. To correctly do so, axons have to grow and navigate the developing nervous system to find their specific targets. A growing axon, led at the tip by a growth cone, requires cytoskeletal dynamics, signalling and guidance, adhesions, and the forces that are generated by these players. There are currently two hypotheses that try to explain how forces make an axon grow: either pulling forces generated by acto-myosin at the adhesions of the growth cone pull the axon, which responds elongating, or forces come from the axon shaft, where microtubules sliding and polymerization generate pushing forces and the growth cone responds providing the directionality of the movement. To distinguish among them, I am using the fruit fly as a model to understand how an axon grows.
Mothers are usually the primary caregiver of their children with CP and as a result they may experience several psycho-social stresses. They strive to manage challenges arising from their children's condition but they may find it difficult to satisfy their own social needs (Burkhard, 2013; Ones, 2005). There is an absence of qualitative studies that explore the experiences of mothers caring for children with CP in Arabic countries in general and none in Oman in particular. This study aims to explore the in-depth experiences of Omani mothers caring for children with CP and to gain a better understanding of their beliefs and interaction. An exploratory qualitative design using Charmaz's (2014) grounded theory approach was used to conduct this study. 23 Omani mothers caring for children (5 to 18 years) diagnosed with CP were recruited through purposive and theoretical sampling from Sohar Hospital and five community-based rehabilitation centres. Semi-structured interviews were used for data collection. The findings suggest that Islamic faith and Omani culture influence mothers' experiences in caring for their children with CP. Mothers perceive their children's disability as predestination, test and gift. Islamic faith and support from husband, extended family and community what they perceived help them living normal life. Mothers express dissatisfaction with medical, social and educational services provided to their children. The findings of this study provide an important insight into the experiences of mothers caring for children with CP within an Arabic culture and facilitate comparisons with mothers from other cultures. The study adds to the body of literature that informs decision makers, policy makers and service providers.
Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) has been associated with pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia (PE). Statins have been shown to increase NO by enhancing expression of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). We investigated whether statins could improve vascular function in normal pregnancies before exploring its effect in PE pregnancies. Pitavastatin is favourable, because it is moderately lipophilic, has metabolic longevity and can augment eNOS expression. Objective: Investigating whether pitavastatin modifies vascular function in chorionic plate arteries from normal pregnancies. Methods: Human chorionic plate arteries (CPAs) were dissected from normal term placenta and mounted on a wire myograph. Contraction was assessed with depolarizing potassium solution and a dose–response curve was constructed to U46619. CPAs were incubated for 2h with 1µM pitavastatin. Dose–response curves with U46619 were repeated or endothelium-independent dilation with SNP was performed after vessels were submaximally contracted (U46619 at EC80 concentration). Results: 2h incubation with 1µM of pitavastatin did not alter maximal contraction or sensitivity to U46619. Conclusion: This research indicates that 1µM pitavastatin, does not have any significant influence on vascular reactivity in normal CPAs.
Separation of ethylene/ethane is an energy-intensive process in petrochemical industry. High efficient and cost-effective adsorption process is considered as an important alternative to traditional cryogenic distillation. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising adsorbents for hydrocarbons separation due to their tremendous specific surface areas and adjustable structures. Cu2(pzdc)2(bpy) (pzdc=2,3-pyrazinedicarboxylate, bpy=4,4'-bipyridine) with N-rich channels was synthesized and characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption and SEM. GCMC simulation was used to calculate the adsorption isotherms of ethylene and ethane at 298 K over a pressure range of 0-10 bar to probe the intrinsic properties of materials.
Cutoff lows are upper-level low-pressure areas formed on the equatorward side of the polar or subtropical jet stream. They develop from a trough that experiences a marked tilting and subsequent breaking off, leaving a pool of cold air and cyclonic circulation detached from the extratropical wave. These systems constitute an important feature of upper-level midlatitude weather systems because they can favour, along with a sudden development of deep convection on its eastern flank and a surface cyclone, an increase in the tropospheric ozone concentration through a stratospheric-tropospheric exchange mechanism. Previous work studying each hemisphere independently using different approaches has shown that cut-off lows in the Northern Hemisphere have a different behavior compared to those in the Southern Hemisphere. Whereas cut-off lows in the Northern Hemisphere occur mostly during the late warm season and at lower isentropic surfaces (320–330 K), cut-off lows in the Southern Hemisphere occur year round at higher isentropic surfaces during the late summer (325–350 K) and at lower isentropic surfaces during the winter (< 325 K). However, no study has performed a global climatology of cut-off lows using a consistent methodology. In this work, a global climatology of cutoff low systems during the period 1979-2013 on multiple vertical levels will be presented. The results show, according to previous studies, the existence of preferred region for cut-off low occurrence in both the Northern and the Southern Hemisphere and a level-dependent seasonality of these systems.
Increasing aircraft transportation has brought convenience for travelling around, as well as growing benefits to transport related industries and commercial companies. However, this has also brought more greenhouse gas emission than before, leaving an urgent issue to balance between benefits and pollution in the aircraft transport sector. More electric aircraft (MEA) systems, as a solution for replacing conventional aircraft systems, help to limit the greenhouse gas emissions, improve energy efficiency and reduce maintenance costs. Multiphase machines in aircraft systems reduce the power per electronic device with improved system reliability on fault condition and increased power density. This project will evaluate the performance of multiphase synchronous machines for a DC power network, by using the harmonic analysis method, to help to understand the machine behaviour, particularly harmonic components, and damper windings and develop a control strategy for the machine to cope with certain fault conditions.
Modal verbs such as ‘can’ and ‘must’ are used by a speaker to both indicate their level of certainty towards a proposition (“it must be in the blue box”) or to express meanings such as obligation or permission (“you must go to bed now”). Children must learn to use and comprehend these terms effectively in order to understand others’ beliefs and develop the pragmatic skills necessary to use these terms as politeness strategies in speech (e.g. would you like to open the window?). Modals are also a complex aspect of language in regards to form-function mappings since the same modal, e.g. ‘can’ carries more than one meaning (ability, permission). Acquiring modals is therefore a difficult task for language learners and limited research has focused on young children’s production of these forms (Fletcher, 1985). Even more limited is research relating to caregiver input and the modal verbs children are exposed to. However, some theories of language learning (e.g. the constructivist usage-based approach) advocate a central role for the analysis of distributional properties of the input in learning, thus a study of the input children hear and its relation to their developing linguistic representations may help explain this crucial linguistic development. This study examined the properties of input modal usage to young children using dense samples of two mothers’ naturalistic speech addressed to their 2-5 year old children. Modals were analysed according to their frequency and associated meanings. Results illustrate some consistent patterns of use whereby certain forms typically occur with one or two meanings, but also a high degree of complexity for other forms, exhibiting a range of different meanings. These differences will be discussed regarding theoretical predictions concerning the likely pattern of acquisition in children’s language, which will subsequently be tested through analysis of the children’s longitudinal developmental data.
Mathematical modelling, combined with experimental approaches, has become a powerful method for investigating the functions of the heart at cellular, tissue and organ levels. Given the prominent problem of global warming, sea temperature changes will have significant impact on the development of cardiac arrhythmias in the fish heart, leading to their sudden death, which may impose a heavy burden to the economy of the society. Therefore, a novel biophysically detailed mathematical model for the electrical action potential of the ventricular myocytes of the teleost fish heart in cold and warm acclimations has been developed. The model consists of a set of Hodgkin-Huxley formulations for the major ion currents from different teleost species. Our simulation results show a close agreement to the experimental findings in the literature. The developed model will be further used to investigate possible effects of raising water temperature on the functions of the fish heart.
Several recent sets of experimental results on the punching shear behavior of flat slabs in fire have produced apparently anomalous deflections results, where the slab deflections on heating are in the opposite direction to that expected. Using numerical analysis, this paper shows that the results are explained by load induced thermal strains (LITS). Using two independent modelling approaches, the profound effect of LITS on deflection behavior is demonstrated. Analysis of the strain state near column connections identifies significant differences when LITS is included in analyses. By contrast for the unrestrained slabs considered here, stress states do not change much. The potential implications of these findings for design are noted.
Atrial fibrillation is a form of tachycardia that attributes to irregular, abnormal and chaotic heart beats. Patients suffering from AF typically present atria rate from 400 to 600 bpm and approximately 150 bpm in the ventricles. Moreover, a focal and/or re-entry circuit activity is propagated in distinct zones of atrial tissue. Studies reveal a positive correlation between the onset of AF and factors such as the high blood pressure and ageing. Recent experimental studies have revealed that AF is associated with a reduction in ICaL. The aim of this research is to study the effect of impaired Ca+2 handling at single atrial myocytes, 1D, 2D and 3D tissue in sheep heart using a computational modelling approach in HF condition. Preliminary data at single cell of sheep atria in HF shows that the action potential duration APD90 is shortened by 57.93%. Surprisingly, this decreasing of APD can be alert to proarrhythmia.
Pre-existing dementia is associated with poorer functional outcome after stroke. A stroke may cause a sudden or gradual decline in cognition for someone with underlying vascular cognitive impairment, and knowledge of a patient’s cognition is used to make decisions about rehabilitation plans. It is not clear, however, how professionals decide whether a patient had pre-existing cognitive impairment prior to admission or how these decisions impact on the rehabilitation interventions and care they provide. This qualitative study aimed to explore how professionals in an inpatient stroke setting make decisions about whether a person has pre-existing cognitive impairment. Further aims were to explore professionals’ decision making about ongoing rehabilitation for people with pre-existing cognitive impairment or dementia in inpatient stroke settings, and identify barriers or facilitators to the decision making process. Semi-structured interviews were carried out within multidisciplinary teams within three stages of the stroke pathway from two sites in Greater Manchester (n=23). Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed using thematic analysis. Results identified professionals use range of resources to decide whether a patient had pre-existing cognitive impairments or dementia, mainly relying on social histories from families. Themes were identified on barriers and facilitators to team working, patient-centred working and clinical reasoning, all of which were used to inform decisions about ongoing rehabilitation for patients. Recommendations for practice were drawn from the major themes.
‘Honour’-based violence (HBV) refers to various forms of abuse, which are primarily perpetrated against women and girls in response to a belief that the victim has done something to befoul her family’s reputation. In England and Wales, HBV is addressed within the national framework on domestic violence and abuse (DVA), though much has been said about this conceptualisation. Though there are considerable overlaps between the two, HBV has specific characteristics that are not typical of mainstream DVA, including the involvement of multiple individuals in perpetrating abuse. Injecting an empirical strand into current debates on the conceptualisation of HBV, this poster presents the views of those working in the field of domestic abuse. It highlights how these individuals distinguish between HBV and DVA based on collectivity, and makes the argument that HBV should be disassociated from discussions on DVA, and recognised instead as a problem requiring a specific and tailored response.
An interest in portable biometrics reading devices has peaked over the last years. The focus of these devices is to have a constant monitoring of a person’s vital signs, like heart rate or blood pressure. Obviously, the portability that wearable technology offers is one of their main strengths, but it can also bring one of the main issues, due to battery charge duration. In addition to the battery problem, for heart rate monitoring aspect, the motion artifact involved when exercising, makes it difficult to obtain a reliable reading, so the output does not suffer from heavy distortion due to motion artifacts. In this study, a method to “clean up” the heart rate signal from the motion artifacts of the sensor collected data is analyzed. The participants wore photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors on both of their ankles during four stages of exercise: walking, running and two stages while exercising on resistance bicycle.
A classic effect in the timing field is that “sounds are judged longer than lights” (Goldstone, Boardman & Lhamon, 1959). Recently, judgements for tactile durations have been found to fall between the two (Jones, Poliakoff & Wells, 2009). These modality differences are commonly interpreted within scalar timing theory as the work of a central pacemaker which runs faster for sounds, then vibrations, and slowest for lights (Wearden, Edwards, Fakhri & Percival, 1998). We investigated whether verbal estimates and temporal difference thresholds are correlated within each modality, but found this not to be the case. This suggests that differences in pacemaker speed may not be the main driver for modality differences in thresholds. In addition, we investigated sensory bias as an alternative to the pacemaker explanation, but this was found not to correlate with modality differences in timing.
Mobile robots are useful for observing and reasoning about objects in 3D, since they can move around and take measurements from different perspectives. However, inferring 3D information from individual depth images is important for when the environment is inaccessible for robots. This project looks at abstracting volumetric information from depth images, in order to get actionable outputs. This is done by learning the underlying 3D structure of different objects using CAD models and using the learnt representations to abstract from segmented objects in depth images to 3D volumetric data.
Background: Reliability (or precision) is important in the quantitative assessment of structural change in knee OA. Objective: The purpose of this analysis was to assess the reliability of a novel method for assessment of synovial tissue volume (STV) in patients with knee OA using contrast enhanced MR images. Methods: Using stored MR images, we developed a semi-automated assessment method which combined both computer-assisted targeted thresholding with manual segmentation to assess STV. Using the method a single observer segmented longitudinal sagittal post-contrast images from 12 men and women who had taken part in a clinical trial of vitamin D therapy in knee OA with repeat assessment within 10 weeks. The images were assessed on a separate occasion by a second observer. Inter- and intraclass correlations were calculated.
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults, yet survival outcomes remain poor. First line treatment is well established but with disease recurrence almost inevitable, improving prognosis is challenging. With the aim of personalising therapy at recurrence we have established a high content screening (HCS) platform to analyse the sensitivity profile of seven patient-derived cancer stem cell lines to 82 FDA-approved chemotherapy drugs, with and without irradiation. Seven cancer stem cell lines were derived from patients with GBM, or GBM variants. Along with the established cell line U87-MG, each patient-derived line was cultured in tandem in serum-free conditions as adherent monolayers and three-dimensional neurospheres. Chemotherapeutics were screened at multiple concentrations and cells double-stained to observe their effect on both cell death and proliferation. Sensitivity was classified using high-throughput algorithmic image analysis. Cell line specific drug responses were observed across the seven patient-derived cell lines. Few agents were seen to have radio-sensitising effects, yet some drug classes showed a marked difference in efficacy between monolayers and neurospheres. In vivo validation of six drugs indicated that cell death readout in a three-dimensional culture scenario is a more physiologically relevant screening model, and can be used effectively to assess the chemosensitivity of patient-derived GBM lines. The study puts forward a number of non-standard chemotherapeutics that could be useful in the treatment of recurrent GBM, whilst demonstrating the potential of HCS to be used for personalised treatment based on the chemosensitivity profile of patient tumour cells.
Causal complex adverbial sentences can perform various pragmatic functions (Sweetser, 1990): explain real-world causality (Content – e.g. You’re hungry because you didn’t eat); justify conclusions (Epistemic – e.g. She didn’t eat because there’s food left); and justify speech acts (Speech-Act – e.g. Eat your dinner, because you’re hungry). Interpreting them requires determining what each clause means and how they relate to each other pragmatically. Insight into how children learning language do this and the factors impacting this understanding can shed light onto how pragmatic awareness and flexibility with form-function mapping develops. Children produce because-utterances from around two-years-old and typically produce these sentences accurately (e.g. Hood & Bloom, 1979). By comparison, children often perform poorly in experimental studies testing comprehension until they are older (e.g. Emerson, 1979). In looking to understand children’s acquisition of because-sentences, the role of input is largely overlooked. However, some theoretical approaches (e.g. constructivist, usage-based) consider the distributional properties of input to be the basis for the development of more abstract form-function linguistic mappings. To examine the role of input on children’s understanding of causal sentences, because-utterances were extracted from dense naturalistic corpora of two mothers interacting with their 3-4-year-old children. Analysis of mother and child speech for pragmatic function and Speech-Act type revealed that the distribution of different types of causal function differed between mother and child (e.g. mother 28% Content, 13% Epistemic, 59% Speech-Act; child 13%, 8%, 79% respectively). Additionally, while mothers produced different types of causal Speech-Acts, the majority for both children were assertive. These findings show that children hear significant variation in the use of because, the majority of uses do not explain real-world causality and children’s use is not tightly related to input. This highlights the need for a detailed analysis of form-function mapping to thoroughly investigate the origin of these differences.
Fungi cause a wide range of infections including invasive and life threatening disease, superficial infections of the skin and mucosal membranes, as well as allergic disorders. The mortality rate due to fungal diseases remains unacceptably high, and is thought to exceed one million patients annually. The emergence of resistance to the available antifungal drugs and toxicity associated with some classes necessitates the exploration of novel pharmacologically effective antifungal drugs. Protein phosphorylation by protein kinases (PK) impacts all areas of cellular activity. Their critical roles in a wide range of cellular functions, along with the relative ease in which drug inhibitor assays can be developed have highlighted this class of enzymes as potential drug targets. To assess the role of these kinases in growth, virulence and drug tolerance, we have generated a library of 90 genetically barcoded knockout mutants in Aspergillus fumigatus A1163. We have validated a barcode-sequencing approach to assess in pooled cultures, the fitness defect in each null mutant when in standard culture conditions and in the presence of the antifungal drug itraconazole. We show that 2 genes, the mitogen-activated protein kinase mpkB (AFUB_078810) and a serine/threonine protein kinase ssn3 (AFUB_035220) are critical for azole tolerance. And the serine/threonine kinase activity YAK1(AFUB_099170) is sensitive to Itraconazole. In addition, we have identified 25 genes that encode kinases that are essential for viability. Our assessment of virulence of these strains is currently in progress.
As one of the world’s most popular and polluting fibres, sustainability issues in cotton farming are a notable matter to consumers. However, from a consumer perspective, the dynamics of sustainability in cotton farming are not always clear. Furthermore, the processing of cotton can be an additional environmental influence. Organic cotton may meet consumers’ environmental concerns, but genetically modified cotton, which accounts for the majority of cotton grown, is perceived to have a negative risk association, as is suggested by studies on consumer attitudes to food.
Renewable energy is essential for the world economy and the current and future generations’ welfare, and it contributes in a balanced way to attain the general goal of energy security and environmental protection. However, there are also challenges and barriers to the deployment of renewable energy generation, distribution and consumption, including technical, economic, cultural and financial challenges. In order to understand and overcome the challenges and barriers in order to promote the growth of renewable energy, it is important to model, analyse and assess the cost-effectiveness, and societal and environmental impact of various renewable energy solutions systemically. The modelling for DGE performance evaluation and impact analysis will require the systematic and consistent handling of multiple factors of both a quantitative and qualitative nature under uncertainty, which will be based on multiple criteria decision theory and evidence-based reasoning with both numerical data and expert knowledge. The findings will contribute to a global evidence base about DGE and be useful to researchers in policy analysis, energy transition, sustainability, and renewable energies.
Background and Motivation: Trauma is a major public health issue and a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. In England and Wales, for example, there were 17,201 injury-related deaths, in 2010. Due to their importance in patient care, trauma outcome prediction models are required to be accurate and reliable. Many researchers have investigated different trauma prediction models; however, only a few have conducted comparative analyses to determine the best performing algorithms for this purpose. Objectives: This research aims to identify the most accurate tools for building a prediction model and increasing model accuracy to enhance the care services provided to trauma patients. Thus, it attempts to: Identify which algorithms have the highest classification accuracy in predicting trauma outcome. Methodology: This research considers the prediction variables based on the model proposed by Bouamra et al. (2015). This model includes age, gender and their interaction, ISS, GCS and mCCi as predictors and the outcome at 30 days or at discharge, whichever comes first. This proposed research applies this model to a classification problem. The results of some ML algorithms, such as Support vector machine (SVM), decision tree (DT) and neural network, in addition to ER rule-based classifier results are compared to the logistic regression algorithm results presented in Bouamra et al.’s (2015) paper.
There is improved use of cold-formed thin-walled steel structures as load-bearing structures in buildings due to their lightness and high strength to weight ratio. They may be used as beams in floors or beam-columns in portal frames. Additionally, presence of axial restraint may enhance some development of axial forces in combination to bending forces when they are used as beams at elevated temperatures. Currently, there exists DSM (Direct Strength Method) for design of thin-walled steel beams and columns at ambient temperature. This method uses elastic buckling loads and section yield to determine the member ultimate strengths. Although, this method has been established and validated at ambient temperature for beams, it hasn’t been fully established for design of beam-columns and beams at elevated temperatures. This research aims at assessing and developing DSM for thin-walled steel beam-columns at ambient and elevated temperatures in order to establish a practical and simplified design method.
Stillbirth, which is fetal death at late gestation, accounts for 2.6 million deaths annually worldwide. Every day in the UK, around ten parents experience this devastating pregnancy outcome. Half of stillbirths have unknown causes and are described as “unexplained stillbirths”. We aim to clarify the underlying causes of unexplained stillbirth through utilizing novel mouse model with ErbB2 gene mutation that results in late-embryonic death. Histological examination of mutant embryos showed minor defects in the atrial myocardium. The involvement of cardiac ion channels’ defects in embryonic death were studied through examining the expression pattern of ion channels, in homozygous, and heterozygous mutants, at RNA and protein levels using PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. It is anticipated that atrial conduction defects are attributed to altered expression pattern of cardiac ion channels in mutant embryos. Further studies will be performed to assess protein localization of cardiac ion channels in human unexplained stillbirths. The information to be gained from studying the contribution of conduction defects to stillbirth could allow the identification of individuals at high risk of stillbirth, developing therapies and interventions to prevent stillbirth.
Ferroelectric go nuts we observe unusual pinched-hysteretic (or peanut-like) curves on our mission to find environmentally-friendly lead-free ferroelectric ceramics. Based on the further investigation, we found that the underlying mechanism of this feature might closely be related to core-shell type phase segregation occurring during conventional ceramic processing. In this regard, combining the findings of peanut-like loops and core-shell type grains, we humorously portray this behaviour as ferroelectrics going nuts.
The aim of this research is to create a model that simulates the morphing behaviour of photo-thermal triggered morphing composites and apply this model to optimise geometrical and materials parameters against the morphing response.
Quaternary centres bearing a nitrogen atom (α-tertiary amines) are found in natural products and therapeutic agents but they represent a remarkably challenging synthetic motif to access when stereochemical control is required. In particular, the development of general and efficient asymmetric approaches towards substituted azepanes and benzazepines is very desirable due to their relevance as pharmaceuticals as well as alkaloids. Combination of biocatalysis and organolithium chemistry gave access to enantiomerically pure 2,2-diaryl azepanes.
Background: The United Kingdom (UK) has been at the forefront of enhancing pharmacist roles and community pharmacy services, particularly over the past decade. However, patient and public awareness of community pharmacy services has been limited. Objective: To identify and synthesise the research literature pertaining to patient and public perspectives on: existing community pharmacy services, extended pharmacist roles, and strategies to raise awareness of community pharmacy services. Search strategy: Systematic search of eight electronic databases; hand searching of relevant journals, reference lists, and conference proceedings. Inclusion criteria: UK studies investigating patient or public views on community pharmacy services or pharmacist roles from 2005 to 2016. Data extraction and synthesis: Data were extracted into a grid and subjected to narrative synthesis following thematic analysis. Main results: From the 3,260 unique papers identified, 30 studies were included. Manual searching identified four additional studies. Designs using questionnaires (n=14, 41%), semi-structured interviews (n=8, 24%), and focus groups (n=6, 18%) made up the greatest proportion of studies. Most of the studies (n=28, 82%) were published from 2010 onwards and covered perceptions of specific community pharmacy services (n=31). Using a critical appraisal checklist, the overall quality of studies was deemed acceptable. Findings were grouped into two main themes “public cognizance” and “attitudes towards services” each with four subthemes. Discussion and conclusions: Patients and the public appeared to view services as beneficial. Successful integration of extended pharmacy services requires pharmacists’ clinical skills to be recognised by patients and physicians. Future research should explore different approaches to increase awareness.
The poster shows the influence of different constructive systems typical used in free-running residences in Brazil. The thermal performance evaluation of simulated residences is based on adaptive comfort index using internal temperature and operative temperature to predict comfort level of the cases. Correlations between the percentage of discomfort hours and thermal properties values of the components of the envelope were investigated. The earth system of adobe, with high thermal inertia, showed the best results of frequency of comfort hours proving to be a good system choice to be used in the hot and dry climate area, besides its sustainable qualities of recyclability, low cost and local availability. All cases presented a high frequency of comfort when in the presence of ventilation, indicating how the strategy is important to prevent the use of energy in order to cool the temperatures inside rooms.
Research on doctoral supervision in the field of intercultural communication has traditionally been applied to cross-cultural comparisons, especially across national systems and cultural boundaries. However, recent years have witnessed such comparison is being challenged and re-analysed in light of potential risk of over generalisation and stereotyping in its observation. Hence, this presentation considers the relevance of small culture notion (Holliday, 1999) as an alternative approach to view intercultural supervision not as whether there are ethnic, national and international differences but as a dynamics, on going group process through which its group members make sense of, in order to operate purposefully within particular contexts and shared behaviours. The purpose of this study was to explore the narrativised experiences of some recent doctoral students and supervisors regarding their supervision at a university in Malaysia. Data were generated using narrative interviews and subjected to holistic-content analysis. The findings reveal the small culture operation of supervision, whereby supervisors and students negotiated rules and established tacit understandings of shared norms and routines. The findings also suggest that there is a multifaceted and interrelating network of social forces that is shaping the behaviour and interaction between supervisors and students.
The development of 2D Electron Gas (2DEG) Quantum Well Hall Effect (QWHE)  sensors has made it possible to detect stray magnetic fields down to Nano-tesla range with unprecedented sensitivity. The prototype device used in this experiment uses 16 QWHE sensors arranged in a 1 by 16 linear array. The sensors are positioned such that a BX sensor is placed orthogonally after a BZ sensor and this pattern is repeated throughout the 16 sensors. The device is equipped with an on-board AC electromagnet that illuminates the test piece with the required magnetic field. Both Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and experimental data show that the device is promising in terms of locating defects in both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. The experiments conducted suggest that with improved circuitry and inclusion of a third-dimension, BY, sensor array, perpendicular to the direction of flux in the test piece, the device can be used to successfully characterise defects in terms of shape, size and orientation in both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic materials. . Mohammadreza Sadeghi, James Sexton, Chen-Wei Liang, and Mohamed Missous, “Highly Sensitive Nano-tesla Quantum-Well Hall-Effect Integrated Circuit Using GaAs–InGaAs–AlGaAs 2DEG”, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 15, No. 3, March 2015.
Urban informality is a global concern that has long been an important focus of research in the social sciences and urban and development debate, including studying poverty and social exclusion, patterns of socio-economic spatial fragmentation and livelihoods to the production of marginality, poverty and unemployment and inequality. This research focuses on the global phenomenon, informal settlements, that developed in various parts of the world and significantly in the global South, departing from their current situations, and existing conditions. The aim is to examine the planning process of urban renewal of informal settlement’s provisions, examining the effectiveness of mapping interventions of the planning delivery process in a Middle Eastern country, Iran.
Adult human brains have, until recently, been thought to consist of a relatively fixed number of neurons. Eriksson et al. were the first to show that not to be the case; the human species is aligned with others in terms of the capacity for adult production of neurons. This project focuses on network level models of structural plasticity, initially modelling the creation and deletion of synapses within a static network. The PyNN spiking neural network simulator will be enhanced to allow a rule-based, stochastic model of synaptic rewiring to run on the SpiNNaker neuromorphic computation platform. To start, we are modelling topographic map formation, with extensions to maintain network homeostasis. Post-developmental neurogenesis will then be explored within the context of a striatum model and an actor-critic model of reinforcement learning. The current developments only allow for random synapses to be formed, with distance between neurons or weights of existing connections having no bearing on the outcome of formation or removal respectively. This will be addressed in the near future to allow for the creation of neural topographic maps, but also as a mechanism for homeostasis.
Introduction: Particulate matter (PM) had been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes potentially by increasing exposure to PM-linked heavy metals. Objectives: To investigate heavy metal exposure in pregnant women, we determined levels of heavy metal in placental samples and examined their association with ambient air pollution and birth weight. Methodology: 30 placentas were sampled following elective delivery between March and May 2016 at St. Mary’s Hospital, Manchester. Placentas were analysed for 15 different metals and associations with small gestational age (SGA) which defined as ≤ 20th percentile had been examined. Associations with ambient air pollutions obtained from ArcGIS were also measured. Results: All placentas contained detectable levels of physiological metals K, P, Cu, Mg, Na, Se and Zn (≤ 2 fold interindividual variation) and Ca, Cd and Fe (variation higher at 14.6, 12 and 4.4 fold, respectively). Pollutant metals As, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb were also detected at maximum levels of 0.003, 0.4, 0.006, 0.05 and 0.006 mg/kg, respectively. Placentas from SGA baby births were significantly less likely to contain Ni, being absent in all 8 SGA samples whilst being absent in only 11 out of 22 normal placentas (p = 0.01). There were no other associations between heavy metals and SGA or between heavy metal levels and ambient air pollutants (NOx and PM10). Conclusion: This pilot study had identified a potential association between heavy metal levels during pregnancy and SGA, but larger numbers of samples are required to confirm this.
The brain contains different types of lipid-rich tissue which can be differentiated by biomolecules specific to anatomical regions. For measurements of lipid compounds in simulated brain tissue samples, mass spectrometry (MS) was performed on binary mixtures of lipid extracts of white and grey matters at 11 known proportions. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) encourages ionisation of intact biomolecules during MS. Assuming linearity and Poisson statistics on the generated MALDI-MS spectral data, our in-house independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to predict the proportions of white:grey matters in each sample, with relatively high accuracy achieving 4% error. This approach can potentially be developed to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissues.
Riboswitches, are short regulatory RNA elements controlling gene expression in response to the binding of specific metabolites. Whilst present across all domains of life, riboswitches are most frequently found within bacterial mRNA. They can operate through various mechanisms, acting at the transcriptional or translational level as ON or OFF switches. Although typically responding to common metabolites (e.g. co-enzymes), these RNA elements can be re-engineered to produce orthogonal chimeric riboswitches that respond to other non-native compounds of interest for use as biosensors in metabolic engineering, gene functional analysis or target validation. Here we present a high-throughput capture-SELEX method for selection of RNA aptamers with high-affinity and specificity for molecules of interest. Future efforts will be focused on integrating the improved RNA aptamers with existing riboswitches expression platforms to create novel tuneable biosensors for biotechnological applications.
Abstract Several factors such as thermal processing and cooking practices may affect protein structure, digestibility of food allergens and their ability to stimulate the immune response. Peanut is one of the major food allergens affecting 1.6% of individuals in Europe1. It is rarely consumed in its native form and is usually roasted or processed into snacks and baked goods which may modify its allergenic activity. We propose that baking will affect digestion and bioavailability of allergens from peanut containing food. Aims: To assess the effect of baking on the digestibility of peanut, gluten and egg proteins using a batch in vitro gastro-duodenal digestion model and to determine whether digestion changes immunoreactivity of proteolytic fragments of allergenic proteins. Methods: Chocolate muffins were prepared with and without added peanut protein in the form of flour. Protein digestion was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using different polyclonal antibodies specific for the 11S (Ara h 3) and 7S (Ara h 1) seed storage globulins of peanut, hen’s egg ovalbumin and a monoclonal antibody specific for wheat gluten proteins. Results: Peanut proteins (Ara h 1 and Ara h 3) and ovalbumin from egg were undigested during the gastric phase and they remained undigested in the insoluble fraction. However, both proteins were digested during the duodenal phase (Ara h3 was digested after 5 min, whereas gluten was digested after 15 min). Ovalbumin was stable to digestion with a lower molecular weight stable intermediate generated. Conclusion: Baking causes the majority of allergen proteins from muffin to be largely insoluble and resistant to pepsin digestion. During subsequent duodenal digestion any remaining peanut allergens were broken down. In contrast ovalbumin passed into the soluble fraction and remained resistant to duodenal digestion.
This poster describes the relationship between the thioredoxin system and the UPR pathway. In this study we have found novel evidence on the requirement of the reducing power of the cytosolic thioredoxin system for the maintenance of the ER homeostasis and gained insights on the interplay between redox balance and UPR activation.
Statement of problem. Heat-cured acrylic resins although important in the field of dentistry do have limitations. These include the fact that denture bases often suffer short term “wear and tear”, and on occasions fracture. These issues limit its application in restoring the function and aesthetics of teeth that are lost or damaged. Purpose. The aim of this study is to investigate the flexural strength and fracture toughness of high impact heat-cured acrylic denture resin impregnated with different concentrations of zirconium oxide nano filers. Materials and Methods. Sixty heat-cured high impact acrylic resin specimens were fabricated for each test and divided into six groups. Group 1 was the control group and Group 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were reinforced with different concentrations of zirconia nanoparticles (1.5%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10%). The dimensions of the specimens were 65mm x 10 mm x 2.50 mm for the flexural strength and 40 mm x 8 mm x 4 mm for fracture toughness--both according to British International Standard Organization (BS EN ISO 20795-1:2008) and (BS 2487:1989 ISO 1567;1988). Tests were done with a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell Z020 Leominster, UK) and ANOVA test was used followed by the post-hoc Bonferroni test to analyse the results. Results. The flexural strength values for G3 demonstrate that the mean value is significantly higher when compared to the control group and the other groups (P < 0.05). However, the fracture toughness values for all sample groups show no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion. The flexural strength of the high impact heat-cured denture base acrylic resin was enhanced by the addition of zirconium oxide nano-fillers between 3% and 5%. The fracture toughness was no significant difference between groups.
Nowadays the problems related to energy production, consumption and pollution are well known. Among alternative energy resources, solar energy has the best potential of efficient large application. Solar energy can be used in different ways, with photovoltaic devices (PVD) being one to convert it in electric energy. Dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are one type of PVD. On a DSSC, light absorption is done through a photosensitizer (dye) that, under excitation, promote an electron to the semiconductor (TiO2), in contact with the anode (FTO or ITO). The dye is reduced by an electrolyte (I-/I3-) that is regenerated by the cathode (Pt), in contact with the anode to generate current. The total efficiency of a PVD is directly related with the efficiency of each process of transfer and transport of the exciton.1 Besides that, stability, lifetime and costs should be consider for a viable PVD. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been used as a substitute of Pt electrodes, as well as a semiconductor or photoanode in different arrangements with TiO2, showing great increase in efficiencies. In order to lower costs and increase lifetime, the typical DSSC dye (a Ru complex) can also be substitute for other materials. Prussian blue (PB) is an iron-cyanide complex (Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3) with well known electrochromic properties. Due to its intense blue color, PB can be used as a dye in DSSC. In our group, an innovative route for CNT/PB nanocomposites (NC) synthesis was developed through a heterogeneous reaction between iron species from CNTs cavities and [Fe(CN)6]3+ aqueous solution. This NC showed both great stability and performance as electrochromic material and H2O2 sensor. In this work, the same route was modified to produce thin films of CNT/TiO2/PB nanocomposites that were further applied as PV materials.
Backgrounds: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to represent a serious issue in clinical environments around the world. Beta-lactam resistance in MRSA depends on the transpeptidase activity of low-affinity penicillin binding protein, PBP2A, which is encoded by the mecA gene. In addition, resistance also requires certain ‘auxiliary factors’ such as fmtA, tagO and others. Objectives: The identification and characterization of novel auxiliary factor gene deepen our understanding of the many resistance mechanisms, and may provide new strategies to combat MRSA infections. Methods: Using transposon mutagenesis, we recently have identified a novel auxiliary factor. Additionally, transduction of transposon mutations by phage 11 into different backgrounds of MRSA, ST398, MW2 and COL and the deletion of a novel auxiliary factor gene in JE2 by allelic exchange were performed. Conclusions: Transposon insertion into both genes causes a 2-32 fold reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics; cefoxitin, oxacililin, ceftazidime, cephradine and meropenem, and complementation restores these MICs back to the wild type expectancy. The deletion of a novel auxiliary factor gene impacts the susceptibility to -lactams.
Knotting at a molecular level can be encountered in DNA, proteins and other natural or synthetic macromolecules. The consequence of such an event on the properties of the knotted structures has been recognised. Chemists have found several ways to assemble these topologies and to study their properties. Recently, our group reported on the halide affinity of metallated molecular topologies and its application as an allosterically regulated halide-binding catalyst. Herein we report the determination of anion exchange constants for a series of metallated pentafoil knots. The influence of the coordinated metal ions and the counter anion were explored and the anion exchange constants determined by an alternative fitting model. This showed better results than a classical 1:1 fitting model for the studied systems by accounting for the effect of the competing counter anions. This work paves the way for the future design of tuneable halide-binding supramolecular receptors based on the system described.
An investigation into the impact protective and compressive properties of reinforced weft knitted structures is presented. A 3D structure consisting of an inner and outer layer is developed and analysed. A 5 gauge Shima Seiki SES122FF machine has been adapted to enable warp insertion during the knitting process, with the purpose of providing additional reinforcement and improved dimensional stability to the outer layer. The inner layer provides shock absorbency through a knitted spacer structure of monofilament and elastomeric yarn. The properties of the new structures are characterised, through tensile and impact testing, to identify their performance capabilities as a shock absorbency material. The research proposed intends to identify the potential use of the structure as an alternative to foam or silicone products in the sportswear market, where comfort and performance can be improved.
Locating and removing buried landmines is a difficult challenge facing many countries around the world. In 2015 there were 977 recorded instances of people being injured or killed by factory-made landmines, and a further 2,265 casualties were caused by improvised explosive devices and unspecified mine types, with the large majority of the victims being civilians . Detecting buried landmines is difficult because of the large range of landmines available, as well as the variety of soil conditions that can be encountered. Traditionally landmines are detected using metal detectors, but modern landmines contain very little metal, making the detection problem even harder. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has the potential to augment current metal detectors to provide a more complete landmine detector, improving detection rates while reducing the rate of false alarms . This poster will report on the progress made in integrating GPR with advanced metal detector systems, together with the possibilities of incorporating advances in electronic computer systems, such as vision, positioning and augmented reality for realising the next generation of humanitarian demining detector systems.  International Campaign to Ban Landmines – Cluster Munition Coalition (ICBL-CMC), "LANDMINE MONITOR 2016", 2016.  D. Daniels, "A review of GPR for landmine detection", Sensing and Imaging: An International Journal, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 90-123, 2006.
This study explores the potential of Image Interactivity Technology (IIT) for fashion shopping on mobile devices by analysing the influence of IIT on consumers’ emotional and behavioural responses using a mixed-methods approach i.e.. focus groups, an online questionnaire and an eye tracking experimental method. Due to the loss of touch or tactile input when shopping online, there is a need for effective visual cues to help aid purchases. Rather than implementing static images, IIT provides consumers with greater visual product information via functions such zoom (image enlargement), product rotation and catwalk video. Using Mehrabian and Russell’s stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) paradigm, fluent processing is considered an appropriate underlying theory to explain why visual information is received more or less positively in certain conditions. This research posits a high level of IIT (different types of IIT) will increase visual attention by facilitating higher perceptual fluency and lowering cognitive effort leading to affective responses and positive behavioural intent when shopping for fashion apparel via mobile devices.
Online shopping environments are becoming more interactive as technology advances. As a result, it is necessary to explore marketing theories and neuro scientific explanations to why this is the case. A reviewed approach of consumer engagement to online interactive shopping environments is considered in this chapter. The online interactive elements of traditional fashion websites that are considered includes; social media, browsing and videos. Measurements of consumer engagement are reviewed via marketing consumer engagement theories (CE) and a cognitive neuroscience technique using an Electroencephalogram (EEG) (A non-invasive procedure measuring the brain’s electrical activity). ASOS.com, the U.K. top fashion online pure player, is used as a preliminary research study, the results demonstrate that engagement is significantly different in social media, video and browsing tasks, browsing for jackets elicited more engagement. Originality of this research stems from the novel way to look at engagement and the ability to combine traditional and non-traditional marketing methods thus addressing emerging fields of the future such as virtual shopping. Keywords: Online Interactivity, Consumer Engagement, EEG.
Virus like particles (VLPs) are replication-incompetent virus shells that represent an intact, non-replicative virion lacking a genome. They maintain the original antigenic composition of the packaging component incorporated into the virion’s outer membrane. Recently, interest in using VLPs as gene therapy agents has increased. In this study, we are aiming to develop retrovirus like particles to serve as a new gene therapy carrier system. Our VLP is of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) origin and to extend the limited cell tropism inherent in SIV the VLP will be pseudotyped with vesicular stomatis virus (VSV) glycoprotein. The particle will deliver IgG1 b12 antibody genes for insertion into the mammalian genome, to produce long-lasting, high titres of neutralising anti-HIV monoclonal antibody. Baculoviruses can be used as vehicles to efficiently deliver and express genes in mammalian cells. BacMam technology uses a recombinant baculovirus engineered to contain a mammalian expression cassette for transgene expression in mammalian cells. The mammalian gene is expressed without baculovirus replication. VLPs can be produced using this expression system.
Structural characteristics of handsheets were determined by means of basic physical measurements and porosity profiles. The grammage effects on structural characteristics have provoked much interest. Grammage effects were assessed by means of physical features, such as plotting mean grammage against thickness in a graph. However, the influence of grammage on porosity profile of handsheets has not reached the required level to fully understand their microstructures. In order to investigate whether porosity is a grammage-dependent property or not, x-ray tomography experiments were performed. Tomography tests not only reveal porosity profiles, but also allow evaluation of the pore-height distributions. Tomography results confirm that the non-linear thickness-grammage relationship is a special case of low-grammage handsheets. This non-linear behaviour is explained by the change in porosity distribution. It is understood that porosity is a grammage-dependent structural property.
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have found a wide variety of uses in vivo such as magnetic resonance imaging, drug delivery, cancer hyperthermia therapy and magnetophoresis. In order to enhance the biomedical value of these MNPs they are often functionalized with ligands such as peptides, antibodies and other small molecules which can actively target certain cells. Condensing the catechol 3,4-dihydroxybenzhydrazide with aldehydes bearing recognition groups that target cell surface receptors, followed by coating the surface of MNPs with the conjugates, thus allowing MNPs to bind specific cell types. Previous work has shown that biotin-catechol hydrazones are effective at rapidly coating magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles, giving functionalized MNPs that target the surface receptors of 3T3 cells. Similarly, condensing 3,4-dihydroxybenzhydrazide with a reducing sugar, a process often followed by cyclization, provides sugar-hydrazides with catechol functionality, a class of compound of particular interest. A high-throughput method has been developed which produces a range of saccharide-hydrazide adducts with good yield and anomeric purity upon condensation of a reducing sugar with 3,4-dihydroxybenzhydrazide. The stability of the resulting catechol-nanoparticle coating has been analyzed and shows a significant improvement upon resorcinol analogues. The ability of sugar-coated nanoparticles to interact with a specific cell line was investigated by incubating the coated MNPs with either 3T3 fibroblasts or HepG2 carcinoma cells. A significant increase in specific interactions was observed for one sugar coating versus other types. Recent work has looked at the synthesis of saccharide-terminated lipids using the same chemistry. Functionalization of the end of a commercially available lipid-polyethylene glycols (lipid-PEGs) gives lipid-PEG-hydrazides in good yield. A subsequent condensation reaction then leads to lipid-PEG-saccharides. It is hoped that these lipids can be inserted into phospholipid vesicles to form saccharide-functionalized vesicles for encapsulation and targeted drug delivery.
Sources of methane, an extremely potent gas, are poorly constrained due to large inconsistencies between top-down (measurement based) and bottom-up (inventory based) flux models. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) serves as an ideal measurement platform to derive a quasi-top-down source flux to constrain local scale emissions. A specific emission flux can be quantified using a mass balancing method where concentration measurements are compared to the background concentration over a horizontal plane perpendicular to the wind direction. In order to interpolate regional scale diffusively mixed measurements onto a perpendicular plane, in the past, a kriging was used. However a local scale emission plume is characterised by erratic wind variations, rather than by diffusion. Thus a new local scale flux method using the sum of grid average concentrations was developed. The new method was tested using data from a blind validation study using measurements of known releases of methane fluxes.
Airborne biological particulate matter, or simply, bioaerosols, are a subset of atmospheric particles produced from a range of sources within the biosphere. These particles include bacteria, viruses, pollen, fungal spores, plant and animal debris, and fragments such as skin or hair. The dispersal of such particles has implications for agricultural, animal, and human health, whilst also influencing the hydrological cycle and climate. The extent of these impacts is highly uncertain, in part, owing to difficulties in characterising the identity and abundance of different biological particulates. By using ultra-violet light induced fluorescence instruments (UV-LIF) the ability to characterise biological particulate matter is improved, providing online, real-time data, compared to traditional sampling techniques. Here, an overview of biological particulate matter is presented, including the methods used to characterise these particles, with a focus on hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis. Keywords: Bioaerosols, UV-LIF, particulate matter
Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical technique where by gaseous ionised chemical species are identified through detection of their mass to charge ratios (m/z), allowing the identification and quantitation of biochemical species within a sample. Recently there has been rapid development in MS imaging (MSI) techniques; where MS analysers are coupled with imaging capabilities to accurately map the spatial distribution of biomolecules within tissue sections. The MS techniques of Desorption Electrospray Ionisation (DESI) and Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS) are two MS techniques that have been shown to be used in the identification of diagnosis of tumours. With REIMS translatable into the clinic as the iKnife, we are delving into the depth of brain tumours in order to further understand and profile them, as to aid the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
Functionalised nano platforms have enormous potential in targeted therapies and controlled delivery of drugs. Although different production techniques have been developed in recent years, methods used to generate uniform in size, stable in a solution and pure NPs are still waiting to be optimised. Functionalisation of the NPs and further conjugation with different biomolecules remain a great challenge. Using chemical and laser methods we have generated different biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles e.g. Chitosan NPs, Poly lactic acid NPs, Iron Oxide NPs and NPs modified with Poly-L-lysine. Among these, Fe3O4 NPs with additional magnetic properties, were further functionalised by simultaneous in situ attachment to Graphene Oxide (GO) using one–step chemical method. Fe3O4@GO hybrid have uniform ~10nm Fe3O4 NPs decorated on top of the GO nano/micro flakes and can be easily separated by magnetic field. Using carbodiimide crosslinker chemistry we have successfully conjugated IgG molecules as well as antimicrobial peptide on to the Fe3O4@GO nano hybrids, respectively. Magnetic properties of functionalised Fe3O4@GO hybrid could be very useful for different biosensors and directing the nano-hybrids to target tissues by using external magnetic field. Future work will aim to link cell-type specific antibodies and nucleic acids such as siRNAs to achieve precisely targeted therapy.
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has gained a lot of interest due to its ability to regulate a wide range of biological processes in the human body, including in the skin. Previous studies have shown that these bioactive lipid mediators are involved in various skin biological processes. However, cutaneous endocannabinoid signals involved in the key events of wound healing (inflammation and epidermal differentiation) still remains incomplete. This project aims to examine the capacity of endocannabinoids in the regulation of cutaneous inflammation and wound healing. The production of endocannabinoids post UVB, a common external stimuli, was examined in proliferating and differentiating keratinocytes. The varying response between endocannabinoids may suggest that endocannabinoids, together with its congeners works in a different way in controlling the complex process of cutaneous inflammation. Modulating the endocannabinoid system could be a potential therapeutic approach for cutaneous inflammation and also perform a basis for further wound healing therapeutic approach.
Background: In Malaysia, functional limitations and impaired daily living activities commonly affect patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), reduces quality of life. The adoption of self-care and early prevention has been suggested as a solution for the OA affected Malaysian community. Our systematic review of the literature identified an exercise programme called Enabling Self-management and Coping with Arthritic Pain using Exercise (ESCAPE-pain) with the best evidence for adaptation as a self-management programme to implement in Malaysia. The UK Medical Research Council Guidance and Framework on developing and evaluating complex interventions are used to facilitate the process of developing this intervention. This qualitative study aims at exploring the views and perspectives of stakeholders when adapting the ESCAPE-pain programme into the Malaysian health care system. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposively sampled 18 patients with knee OA and 14 healthcare professionals (HCPs) including nurses, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, medical doctors and orthopaedic surgeons. The qualitative analysis is guided by framework analysis. Results: Analysis of the data is still in progress but a number of broad themes have been identified in patient interviews (for example motivators) and both similar and contrasting themes identified in staff interviews (for example barriers and facilitators). These themes will be exemplified and discussed in the presentation. Discussion: The findings of this study will facilitate the process of investigating the feasibility of ESCAPE-pain programme consisting of twice weekly home exercise among patients with knee osteoarthritis. In practice, it is expected to benefit the patients with knee OA and Malaysian healthcare system as a whole.
Corrosion is a critical issue in industry. Application of the corrosion resistant coatings on metallurgies for corrosion protection has attracted attention due to its simplicity and high efficiency. These coatings must meet many requirements including: easy application, environmentally friendly, cost-effective, and high performance. The nickel coatings have been applied due to their good corrosion resistance, wear resistance and high strength. Co-deposition of cobalt with nickel enhances corrosion resistance and hardness of the coatings. Super-hydrophobic coatings are highly water repellent surfaces, which have shown remarkable corrosion resistance in highly aggressive media in the past two decades. It is revealed that the super-hydrophobic lotus leaf has micro/nano hierarchical structures, suggesting that super-hydrophobicity can be achieved through micro/nano structures. Herein we aim to develop electroplating technique to apply super-hydrophobic protective Ni-Co coatings that exhibit excellent anti-corrosion performance for longer service life of metallurgies in industry. Electro-deposition process is known one of the easiest and economical superior techniques to provide coatings by using different metallurgies. The goal of this research is to enhance both corrosion resistance and wear resistance with optimisation of microstructure of the coatings.
We are interested in modelling the reflection and transmission of waves by periodic arrays of identical, axisymmetric scatterers, in order to better characterise the noise and vibration dampening properties of certain composites. We seek to solve the scattering problem via the boundary element method (BEM), taking advantage of the problem's periodicity to introduce the periodic Green’s function, giving rise to a simplified integral equation. The disadvantage of this approach is that it requires the computation of an infinite sum that is slow to converge. We present a novel method in order to approximate this infinite sum via a finite sum with asymptotic corrections; the scheme is rapidly convergent and straightforward to implement for cylinders of arbitrary cross-section, save for certain resonant frequencies. Numerical results for the transmission and reflection coefficients from arrays with different cross sections are obtained.
Traditional power generation has been providing sufficient fault current from upstream towards the downstream network for the past decades. Recently, most of the conventional power generations will or about to shut down and resulted in reduction of fault level. The increase of distributed generations (DGs) into the system boosts the voltage. However DGs are intermittent and lacks synchronism. The reduction of fault level and current contribution from the DGs poses a challenge to the future protection coordination. This will be worsen during a summer minimum short circuit. This paper discuss the sensitivity analysis of distance protection when multiple sources, operated at different fault level into the system. Power-Factory (Dig-silent software package) will be used to simulate a network under fault condition and investigates the impact of reduced fault level on the tripping performance of a distance protection scheme and a new protection strategy will be proposed.
3D scaffolds present a particular functionality in a biological environment when compared to 2D structures, due to flexibility, strength and the ability to degrade in body fluid evenly. Also due to their morphology, the scaffolds become more attractive to the cells and the like matrices. The spatial distribution of adhesions, topography of scaffold, mechanical properties and degradability are factors that allow the use of 3D structures. Develop 3D sccafolds of nanofibres hybrids organic-inorganic for regeneration of bone tissue. The 3D scaffolds of nanofibers are developed from organic-inorganic hybrids produced from a new technique that combines solution blow spinning with thermally induced phase separation, which favor the production of nanofibres 100 times more than the other methods, with average scaled diameters nanometer.
Background: The impact of the Advanced Practice Nursing (APN) role on patients, staff members and organisational outcomes is well documented in academic literature. However, scholars argue that the role is still underutilised. There is no clear guide describing how to implement and utilise their role. Aim: The aims of this integrative review are to critique and synthesise the existing knowledge presented in nursing literature regarding the barriers to and facilitators of the APN role. Design: Whittemore and Knafl’s updated framework for integrative reviews guided the review process. Data sources: A comprehensive multi-step search (published 2005–2016) of the barriers to and facilitators of the APN role implementation literature was performed. Review methods: All 10 articles were included in the review. Results: Three main factors that have been identified are: institutional and management factors, inter and intra relationship factors, and personal factors. Conclusion: The reviewed literature reveals that a lot of work is still needed to implement the APN role fully. However, the literature does not offer a clear conclusion regarding the optimum implementation and utilisation of the role.
Composite materials have become the preferred choice in many structures applications for the advantages they provide over metals. Low density and high specific strength and stiffness make them immediately attractive, while the ability to carefully design parts for anisotropic loading make them one of the most versatile materials available. With this in mind, the ability to put new parts into service with the high degree of safety and reliability that their environments demand has become more important. Non-destructive techniques are often used during inspection to ensure that sub-surface damage is not overlooked but the processing and analysis of data can be time consuming. For this reason, structural health monitoring techniques that utilise permanently integrated sensors have gained in popularity. The work presented here uses two sensor types to monitor a composite pipe during mechanical testing. The data is analysed to understand the type of damage that has occurred.
Quantum computation offers a promising path to efficient and accurate computation beyond the capacities of even the most advanced classical computer. Among the first tasks to building such a quantum computer is to construct stable, controllable quantum bits. Many of the current experimental efforts to so in condensed-matter systems rely on searching for and manipulating quasi-particles which are their own anti-quasi-particles called Majorana zero-modes. Unfortunately, these methods require precision control of magnetic fluxes, tri-wire junctions, or electrostatic gates. In this work, we propose a new, simpler platform to create and manipulate Majorana zero-modes in a two-dimensional topological superconductor. These modes emerge when we apply an in-plane magnetic field, giving us a simple way to move these states by rotating the magnetic field. With this simplicity, we hope that our proposal will soon be realized experimentally to bring the dream of quantum computation a step closer to reality.
Background: Research suggests that most people would prefer to die at home.. Family caregivers play a critical role in facilitating the support of patients dying at home. Family caregivers’ from different cultural, geographic, and socioeconomic backgrounds such as Saudi Arabia where the religious beliefs play an important role in social life may experience the caregiving role differently. Method: An exploratory qualitative design informed by ethnographic methodology. Data collection conducted in three phases: 1) Semi-structured interviews with 30 family caregivers; 2) Observation of family and nurses during nurses’ home visits; 3) follow-up interviews with 20 nurses. Data analysis: Thematic analysis Findings: A preliminary finding identified the following theme: > Impact of the Islam and culture on home health care (a) Availability of an interpreter (c) Unavailability of Muslim or Arabic nurses (d) Communication barriers Conclusion The study is providing an in-depth understanding of perspectives, views, experiences, and issues surrounding the provision of end of life home care. The evidence from this study may have the potential to improve care and support for carers and to inform future policy on home health care services.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive, age-associated neurodegenerative disorder with a global prevalence likely to double every 20 years. There is no single test or biomarker that can detect or diagnose AD, yet predicting the earliest stages of cognitive impairment is vital to enable early intervention and possible disease modification. Currently, diagnosis relies on clinic-based assessment settings and diagnosis often occurs in the moderate or advanced stages of disease progression, making prevention or disease modification impossible. A combination of different carefully chosen biomarkers is likely to provide a means of early detection of dementia. Most biomarkers are expensive (e.g. neuroimaging) or invasive (e.g. lumbar punctures). This puts huge value into inexpensive and non-invasive ‘disease signatures’, easily obtained from real-life environments, such as in homes, to contribute and enrich a combinatorial biomarker. Technology-detected surrogate markers, such as changes in gait or daily personal computer-use, can be acquired continuously and non-invasively. Our aim is to develop novel data mining and analysis techniques based on a deep machine learning (DML) methodology, to ascertain early cognitive and functional decline indicative of degenerative brain disease from real life continuous, unobtrusively collected sensor data. DML techniques, which can detect abstract and complex patterns in large data sets, have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance in challenging artificial intelligence tasks, such as drug discovery. In this work we investigate the performance of DML techniques in gait analysis experiments collected from a unique unobtrusive floor sensor system.
Introduction: Maternal exposure to air pollutants can affect fetal development and cause adverse birth outcomes. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) can react with amines to generate toxic alkylating agents (AAs), and their biological effects are mediated, in part, by the formation of DNA damage including the promutagenic and toxic, O6-methylguanine. O6-methylguanine methyl transferase (MGMT) removes O6-alkylguanine adducts by transferring the alkyl group from the O6 position to the cysteine residue within its active site. Aims: To quantify MGMT functional repair activity in placentas and to determine its association with air pollutant exposure over various time windows during pregnancy. Methods: Tissue samples from the middle, cord and peripheral areas of the normal placentas were collected from 10 mothers, who lived in Greater Manchester, and stored at -80˚C until processed. MGMT repair activity was quantified in cell-free sonicates of 100-120 mg tissue using a standard radioistotopic methyl transfer assay and protein levels were quantified by a Bradford assay. Postcodes of the mothers were geocoded by ArcGIS and air pollutant data obtained from the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Results: Placental MGMT activity (mean ± SD) was 0.126 ± 0.007, 0.116 ± 0.011 and 0.124 ± 0.007 fmoles/µg for middle, cord and peripheral samples respectively and varied 4, 4 and 2.5 fold respectively. Level of pollutant exposure varied with mean nitrogen dioxide exposure was 33.2µg/m3, NOx 60.6µg/m3, PM10 and PM2.5 were 18.3µg/m3 and 12.8µg/m3 respectively. None of the pollutants were significantly associated with MGMT functional repair activity in any time windows during the pregnancy (p>0.05). Conclusions: This initial study indicates that the placenta contains functional MGMT activity that may affect susceptibility to alkylating agent exposure. The biological significance of variable placental MGMT activity remains to be characterised. An association between placental MGMT activity with pregnancy outcomes need to be further studied.
Expression of rdhA and rdhB genes is controlled by transcriptional regulators in response to the presence of organohalides. Included in the genome of the organic respiring bacteria Dehalcoccoides mccartyi (phyllum Chloroflexi) there are up to 32 rdhAB genes associated with the Multiple antibiotic Resistant type regulators, known to control the expression of proteins involved in the biochemical and physiological responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. D. mccartyi strain CBDB1 is known to express a reductive dehalogenase (CbrA) that catalyses the dechlorination of aromatic organohalides; its expression is controlled by the Mar type regulator also known as RdhR Cbdb1625. Here we present the determination of its binding specificity towards chlorinated phenolic ligands by crystallography and solution studies. These reveal tight binding of 2,3,4-, 2,3,5- and 3,4,5-trichlorophenoles in solution. The affinity of the RdhR Cbdb1625 for its 42 bp palindromic sequence decreases in presence of the 2,3,4-trichlorophenol suggesting it resembles the physiological ligand.
Healthcare researchers may create knowledge artefacts in an attempt to bridge the ‘third translational gap’ between healthcare research and practice, and to maximise research impact. When knowledge artefacts are used in this way ‘to serve as bridges between intersecting cultural and social worlds’, they may be known as boundary objects (Nicolini et al., 2012). Toolkits are a type of knowledge artefact, which aim to help frontline healthcare professionals (HCPs) put research into practice (Barac et al., 2014). Our understanding of whether and how toolkits achieve this is limited, despite their increasing use (Yamada et al., 2015). The aim of this research is to understand the role and function of toolkits in contributing to research impact, and the issues involved in creating them, using the theoretical lens of boundary objects. A qualitative approach will be taken, with interviews with academics, funders, and practitioners forming the basis of the study.
Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an irreversible, progressive brain disease that slowly destroys memory and other cognitive functions. The disease affects 850,000 individuals in the UK and it is predicted 27 % of males and 37 % of females born in 2015 will develop AD in their lifetime. Alzheimer’s disease costs the UK in excess of £26 billion a year, more than the cost of either cancer or heart disease . It is characterised by extracellular deposition of amyloid protein with subsequent formation of plaques leading to dementia . Disruption of amyloid beta aggregation may therefore be a strategy to help prevent plaque formation and reduce pathology. Aim: To synthesise the peptide-based compound D-Tryptophan-Aminoisobutyric acid and investigate its ability to disrupt amyloid β1-42 peptide aggregation. Methods: D-Tryptophan-Aminoisobutyric acid was synthesised by liquid phase peptide synthesis. Boc-D-tryptophan N-hydroxysuccinimide ester was incubated on ice with 2-Aminoisobutyric acid in alkaline conditions and the conjugate was subsequently purified by preparatory HPLC. Aggregation of amyloid beta was measured spectrofluorimetrically using thioflavin T assay. Results: Analytical HPLC and MALDI- TOF mass spectrometry analyses revealed D-Tryptophan-Aminoisobutyric acid was successfully synthesised. D-Tryptophan-Aminoisobutyric acid significantly inhibited aggregation of amyloid β1-42 peptide. Reference: 1. Lewis, F., Estimation of future cases of dementia from those born in 2015. Alzheimer’s Research UK, 2015. 2. Awasthi, M. et al., 2016. Alzheimer’s disease: An overview of amyloid beta dependent pathogenesis and its therapeutic implications along with in silico approaches emphasizing the role of natural products. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 361, pp.256–271.
Peatlands are the largest terrestrial carbon reserve in the UK despite covering just 10% of UK land. Accurate modelling of the diurnal carbon dynamics of peatland vegetation is lacking in existing models and initial evidence has been inconclusive as to the importance of these processes. Alongside this, fluvial systems are being increasingly recognised as areas of carbon processing, especially in the context of terrestrial erosion. Understanding ecosystem functioning on these levels will allow us to better predict and manage changes occurring in peatlands as a result of climate change and anthropogenic pressures. Using cross-discipline methods this project seeks to generate novel models and methodologies and offer mechanistic understanding of these processes in peatlands ecosystems.
Abstract Explanations of political alienation have focused on personal demographic characteristics. However, my research suggests a refocus on explanations that attend to the experiences people have of their local area. Using data from the British Election Study, this paper establishes that beliefs about how far government listens to people in one’s local community constitute a separate attitude to government approval and external political efficacy. Causally, both objective and subjective dynamics are found. Negative evaluations of the local economy strongly predict the belief that government does not listen to people in one’s community, far outweighing evaluations of the national or personal economy. Likewise, belief in the excessiveness of local cuts had larger effects than a belief that cuts nationally were excessive. Finally, people living in local authorities worst affected by austerity were least content. This paper advances a new way of understanding political alienation and demonstrates the potential for adverse effects from austerity policies.
Globally more than 30 million patients have Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Alzheimer’s disease cases are expected to triple by 2050, transforming this neurodegenerative disease as a top priority in the health system. Alzheimer’s disease is a complex disease in which both environmental factors and genetic risks are involved. Alzheimer’s disease is linked to genetic alterations in different genes principally: Amyloid precursor protein, Presenilin 1 and Presenilin 2. Additionally, the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are key players in the disease. Nowadays, research has developed possible treatments, but so far neither treatment nor cure has been successful against Alzheimer’s disease. Nevertheless, a new field in mitochondrial bioenergetics could provide hints to develop new drugs and early diagnostic on AD. Neurones need an extremely accurate energy balance to transport electric impulses throughout the body. Effective distribution from the cell body to the axon is essential to maintain normal cellular function and structure. Lack of bioenergetic homoeostasis could lead to cellular death and neurodegeneration due to changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and transition pore mechanism. Additionally, changes in mitochondrial renewal processes such as fusion and fission have been related to neurodegenerative diseases. Literature about mitochondrial distribution and structure is insufficient to make a clear statement about mitochondrial bioenergetics on Alzheimer’s disease. Our research aim is to demonstrate whether an imbalance on mitochondrial morphology, fission or fusion occurs in Alzheimer’s disease neurones. We hypothesise changes in mitochondrial morphology such as collapsed structures and elongated mitochondria, in parallel with changes in fusion and fission genes, such as Drp1 and Opa1. We used iPSC technology, immunofluorescent techniques followed by Super Imaging Resolution, and 3D modelling to create a mitochondrial bioenergetic profile and measure mitochondrial fragmentation on Alzheimer’s disease.
Silver compounds are commonly used in wound dressings to control bacterial growth with generally good efficacy although sporadic cases of reduced silver susceptibility have been described in certain Gram-negative bacteria. In the current investigation, we have exposed wound isolates to silver nitrate using a validated system in order to assess the potential for adaptation. An agar diffusion system was used to expose sub-inhibitory concentrations of ionic silver to wound isolates over ten passages (P10) and again following ten additional passages in silver-free media (X10). Test bacteria were as follows: Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis. Susceptibility to silver in planktonic and biofilm growth modes was assessed using standard methods. Gram-positive bacteria exhibited a >4-fold decrease in susceptibility to ionic silver following passaging (P10). Reductions in susceptibility were also observed in S. aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms. In contrast, adaptations in Gram-negative wound isolates were limited to P. aeruginosa (P10) which when grown in sessile form exhibited a highly mucoid phenotype and a ≥16-fold reduction in silver susceptibility. In the absence of silver exposure, full or partial reversion to baseline susceptibilities was observed in all bacteria with the exception of S. aureus. Repeated exposure to silver resulted in transient reductions in silver susceptibility in wound isolates. Studies are currently underway to understand the molecular basis of these changes.
Childbirth is a normal physiological process that does not require unnecessary interventions by maternity care providers. However, some maternity settings in Bahrain still continue to intervene during labour and childbirth while providing care to low-risk women. This approach contradicts the World Health Organisation’s (WHO’s) initiatives in implementing Evidence-Based Practices (EBP) of intrapartum care (WHO, 2015) Aim: to gain understanding of intrapartum practices in Bahrain. Methods and methodology: Concurrent Mixed Methods used in the study. Study was conducted in two governmental and educational maternity hospitals in Bahrain. The quantitative data collected through a convenient sample of post-partum women. Qualitative data collected using purposive and theoretical sampling approach guided by grounded theory. Quantitative data collected using a researcher-administered questionnaire with 228 women and an audit of birth records. Qualitative data obtained using semi-structured interviews with 20 participants and six non-participant observations. Quantitative data analysed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative data analysed using constant comparative technique. Findings: analysis of quantitative finding is ongoing. the outcome of qualitative data analysis was one core category and two major categories. The identified core category was "women as recipients of care", and two major categories were: "the context of childbirth care" and "moving toward evidence-based care". Study preliminary’s findings suggest an urgent need to fill the gap in the intrapartum practices in Bahraini maternity settings to be consistent with WHO’s recommendations for safe childbirth care and meet the individualised need for labouring women.
As player wages and their transfer fees constitute the biggest cost for a European football club, the quality of player recruitment decisions is crucial to its sporting and financial success. Hence, decision makers in football operations need to make well-informed decisions in order to build the best team possible within their financial restrictions. With this in mind, effective recruitment of players in European football lies at the heart of our research problem. This study aims to develop a decision-making framework on assessments of player and club performance via classifying and rating them, and on valuation forecasts of future transfer fees. The contribution of this research is threefold: Derivation of player categories in terms of playing sub-positions and club profiles in terms of playing style and financial strength; an analytical model on future player valuations; a decision-making framework that could be utilised in other invasion sports through modification of relevant criteria.
Eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR) has been shown to be effective in case studies and efficacious in randomised controlled trials, most notably for trauma. Comparatively limited research, however, appeared to investigate what clients say about their experiences of EMDR so this systematic review examined qualitative empirical studies on clients’ experiences. Four super-ordinate themes and sixteen sub-themes emerged: EMDR changing a person, necessary conditions for EMDR to effect change, EMDR method as agent of change and EMDR therapist as agent of change. Thus, EMDR is talked about in a transformative manner, there are conditions which need to be present for EMDR to work and there appears to be interplay between the EMDR method and therapist as agents of change. The relative paucity of current qualitative data could be addressed by engaging psychologists, as scientific enquirers and artistic therapists, to examine the voice of clients to improve therapy and treatment programmes.
Malaysia’s 11th Five Year Plan (2016-2020), emphasises the need for strengthening disaster risk management. It is in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015–2030), which calls for substantial global reductions in the occurrence of disasters by 2030. Flooding in Malaysia normally happens when there are occurrences of heavy rains especially during the monsoon seasons. The floods are increasing in severity as a consequence of climate change. As a result, serious national flooding keeps occurring each year. The results of flooding are extensive and widespread all over the country, with consequential loss of life and property. The Malaysian university sector is not immune from the effects of flooding. Recovery to an operational state could be highly problematic, especially if research and teaching infrastructure is damaged. The recovery process would be complex, as indeed would be the implementation of strategies leading to improved resilience to flooding, as both processes require co-ordination between a large numbers of stakeholders. Even worse, at present there an almost total lack of information on recovery strategies and resilience as applicable in the context of the Malaysian university sector and this situation is viewed as a matter of some concern.
This is a photograph of the inside of one of my samples during a mechanical test. The sample is a carbon fibre/glass fibre composite pipe which has been instrumented with different types of sensors to enable me to detect and monitor the progress of damage during the bending test. The purpose of this work is to be able to prevent early failure of pipes while recording as much data as possible to shed light on the conditions where the pipe is placed to be able to better predict how the materials will behave. The success of this project will ease the introduction of new materials into the demanding environments where they are needed.
In order to test whether certain emotion regulation (ER) strategies are cognitively costly, we investigated their influence on a concurrent cognitive task. While performing an auditory discrimination task (ADT) participants down- or up-regulated their emotions evoked by images via cognitive reappraisal (CR) and suppressed their facial expressions (Experiment 1) or down-regulated emotions via CR (Experiment 2). Viewing unpleasant images resulted in stronger negative emotions experience and higher arousal, both of which were modulated by ER. Watching unpleasant images led to longer reaction times in the ADT. CR up-regulation (in Experiment 1) and CR down-regulation (in Experiment 2) resulted in longer reaction times compared to the control condition, which suggests that these strategies may be cognitively costly and may impair a concurrent cognitive processes.
Graphene oxide membranes have attracted considerable attention recently as a promising candidate for new separation technologies. They can filter out small nanoparticles, organic molecules and even large salts. However, they cannot be used for sieving common salts and in desalination technologies, which require angstrom-size capillaries. Here, we describe how to control the inter layer spacing (d) in the angstrom regime by physical confinement and achieve accurate and tunable ion sieving. Membranes with d from ∼9.8 Å to 6.4 Å are demonstrated, providing a sieve size smaller than the diameters of hydrated. In this regime, ion permeation is found to be thermally activated with energy barriers of ∼10–100 kJ mol–1 depending on degree of ion dehydration. Permeation rates through these capillaries are found to decrease exponentially with decreasing the size of the capillary whereas water transport is only weakly affected. The exponential suppression of ion permeation combined with fast water transport opens possibilities for using such membranes for ion sieving and water desalination.
Since the 1960’s, a group of men in Chiapa de Corzo, in the Mexican state of Chiapas, started dressing up as women – or, as they called themselves, chuntá – during the yearly festivities of Saint Sebastian. It is not clear where this tradition came from: some would connect it to a colonial celebration of a Spanish noblewoman who had done many good deeds for the village, while others would affirm that it had its origins in a celebration of a pre-Columbine goddess of fertility – a celebration which later on had been adapted to Catholicism. Either way, the tradition became popular, and nowadays, hundreds of chuntá participate every year in a celebration that has become famous enough to be broadcasted on national TV. For the modern Mexican viewers, the figure of the chuntá – with its obscure historical roots – constitutes a sufficiently exotic image to keep it at a certain distance, but even so, the chuntá clearly unsettle long established norms about masculinity in most of the country. At the same time as the chuntá then ask what it means to be a man in Mexico today, they also – wanting to or not – touch important practical questions about sexual rights.
This picture was taken by my wife when I was writing my first year PhD report. The child in the picture is my son (4 years old at that time). The impact of whatever you do, your children will follow you is reflected in this picture as he is not at all interested in playing games and is pretending to be a researcher at this very young age. Not only the young children follow their parents, they also try to follow the footsteps of the adults (they are exposed to) for example their teachers at school. Whenever you come across with a question to a young child about his/her future profession, the most likely response you may get, “I am going to be a doctor like mummy” or “I am going to be a teacher like my dad”. Researchers at Facebook have also analysed data from 5.6 million people to reveal that certain jobs parents have (including being a nurse, scientist or lawyer), increase the chances of their children following in their footsteps. In conclusion your behavior and activities play a vital role in your children development and growth as they always follow YOU!
The image shows leaves of zinc oxide growing on the corroded surface of a magnesium alloy. These dendritic structures form after immersion of the alloy in a fluid that simulates human blood plasma. This magnesium alloy is a biocompatible and biodegradable material that has a potential use as a temporary implant for orthopaedic applications. It has been designed to help healing fractured bones. Once the bone has recovered, the implant will dissolve and be eliminated from the body. To ensure that no harm will be caused to the tissues surrounding the implant, it is important to understand corrosion behavior in solutions that mimic those found in the human body. One aspect of my project is to evaluate the products formed on the surface of magnesium alloys, such as the fascinating zinc oxide leaves seen in this image. The picture was captured using a Scanning Electron Microscope with backscattered electron detector, with magnification of 2500x.
Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), a multipotent, self-renewing subpopulation of cells within the tumour microenvironment, have recently been identified and are believed to be responsible for disease recurrence, thus are a promising in vitro model for screening therapeutic options for recurrent GBM. U87 glioblastoma stem-like cells are grown in low-adherent plates to form a single spheroid. After processing, each spheroid is individually stained with the nucleic acid stain DAPI (blue) and for putative stem-cell markers. This particular spheroid is stained for Nestin (green), a type VI intermediate filament protein that is expressed in neural stem cells.
It's 2:14 AM on a Monday morning in February. I'm hidden away in a support laboratory next to our beam line at Diamond Light Source, a synchrotron off the A34. Opposite the lab in the storage ring, electrons are accelerated to near light speeds and are bent using giant magnets to produce X-rays. These bombard our sample and are scattered and picked up by detectors twice the size of me. Computers beep, lights flash, alarms sound and scientists fill up their coffees ready to analyse the spectra. All this impressive science around me and the best way to pack the sample in to a capillary is to use an electric toothbrush.
When I saw this picture under the microscope, it reminded me of the surface of some alien planet, but later reading an article about evolution - it all made sense. The picture was familiar to me because I have seen it before. Volcanic eruptions leave patterns similar to human mitochondrial distribution. It is interesting to think that at the beginning, life started thanks to violent volcanic activity and we still carry traces in our bodies about what we are and where we came from. This image shows the mitochondrial distribution of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (iPSC) stained with MitoTracker and was taken using EVOS FL imaging system. The Andrew Doig lab is investigating how mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in Alzheimer’s Disease.
Dansō is a Japanese word that means "male dress" and can also be used as a noun to describe a girl or a woman who dresses up like a man. In contemporary Japan is a flourishing business of escort services providing paid dates and events aimed at other women. From September 2015 to July 2016 I conducted an ethnographic fieldwork working on a voluntary basis as a crossdresser escort myself. Research in action, in my case, meant to create and embody a new and male identity, André. Through this new self and gender, I explored how masculinity is constructed and performed in the Japanese setting of escort service business and if homosexuality is involved. In the picture, you can see the male me posing with another crossdresser for a promotional flyer of the company where I conducted my research. As the first study conducted on FtM escort service in Japan, my socio-anthropological research fills a gap on gender and sexuality in Japanese Studies and aims to provide original insights on how masculinity can be variously performed and experienced in a specific culture.
Chemistry - Organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, chemical engineering, physical chemistry, biochemistry Computer sciences - Computer modelling Imaging and microscopy The brain contains different types of lipid-rich tissue which can be differentiated by biomolecules specific to anatomical regions. For measurements of lipid compounds in simulated brain tissue samples, mass spectrometry (MS) was performed on binary mixtures of lipid extracts of white and grey matters at 11 known proportions. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) encourages ionisation of intact biomolecules during MS. Assuming linearity and Poisson statistics on the generated MALDI-MS spectral data, our in-house independent component analysis (ICA) was applied to predict the proportions of white:grey matters in each sample, with relatively high accuracy achieving 4% error. This approach can potentially be developed to distinguish between healthy and diseased tissues.
Oral epithelium is mainly composed of three layers: basal, prickle (spinous) and granular layers. The fourth layer which is found only in masticatory areas is the keratinized layer (like the tongue, palate and Gingiva). The cells of epithelium are connected to each other by a number of proteins and one of these proteins is E-cadherin protein. This protein is an important marker of epithelial tissue and it is one of the key regulators of tissue integrity and polarity. In normal oral epithelium, the E-cadherin protein is present in a pericellular (cell surface membrane) distribution around the basal, prickle (spinous) and granular layer with different intensity. While in the superficial keratinized layer it is mostly absent. Loss or down regulation of E-cadherin protein in tumour progression is well known to affect the overall prognosis of patients with cancer. This loss or down regulation is found to be one of the factors that make cells “lose their polarity and cell-cell adhesion, and gain migratory and invasive properties to become mesenchymal stem cells with increase ability to metastasis to distant areas”. Therefore, my study is directed towards assessing the effects of the loss of this protein in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Anoum Al-mudhani [School of Medical science, Dentistry, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health]
This summer I am studying the the role of Deltex modulation of Notch signalling in regulating homeostasis of the intestine. I am therefore analyzing the intestine of adult Zebrafishs (kdrl:nlsGFP Dtx2-/-,kdrl:nlsGFP Dtx2+/+ ) and different Drosophila mutants. This image is one of my first Hematoxylin and Eosin stainings on a 5 µm paraffin section of the anterior intestine from an 8 month old kdrl:nlsGFP Dtx2+/+ female Zebrafish. I love science, Manchester, my work and this image is part of my everyday life here. I came last year to Manchester as a master student and decided to come back to work as a research assistant and in September I will start my PhD as part of the A*STAR Research Attachment Programme (ARAP) with the University of Manchester. I am so grateful for the opportunities and training the University of Manchester has offered me, I have butterflies in my stomach just like my fishies. <3
Emojis have currently been an essential and a fun part of our daily communications via texting. However, it is not expected to see them at a sintered surface of ceramic with a few micron scales, under Scanning Electron Microscope, as appeared in the image. I investigate the core-shell type phase segregation in lead-free piezoceramics in my research and these unique features around the grains appeared as emoji-like have strengthened our proposal regarding to the formation mechanism that we have been thinking over for a long while. Eventually, the answer has been appeared as a smiley face. Since the material seen here is one of the promising lead-free candidates among piezoceramics (mostly containing toxic lead), I also would like to emphasis on an issue that is vital for our world, which address the importance of research on environmentally-friendly materials represented as green border surrounding the image. Image was taken by scanning electron microscopy (Philips XL30 FEGSEM) in backscattered mode with 10 kV of accelerating voltage.
Starting a conversation with "I am sponsored by ISIS" does not go down all too well these days. STFC-ISIS is a neutron and muon spallation source in the heart of Oxfordshire. The main floor of the experimental hall houses all the neutron instruments, and nestled underneath the mezzanine bathed in blue light you can see EMU poking its nose out.
My research explores how identities in the autonomous region of Andalusia in southern Spain and in Catalonia in the north-east are communicated through film. As part of my research, I undertook fieldwork in Andalusia and Catalonia during 2016, attending film festivals to understand the role that these events play in developing a sense of what it means to be Andalusian or Catalan through the films that are programmed and awarded prizes. This image was taken at the Seville European Film Festival. It brings the camera – the tool through which many of us now construct our identity for the outside world – into focus as a device that can capture (or leave out) information to convey our understanding of the world around us and where we fit into it. This process of identity formation involves making decisions about how we wish to be viewed by the world. The same is true of film festivals: details like the choice of location, such as this grand foyer of the Teatro Lope de Vega in Seville, influence participants’ expectations and tacitly encourage certain modes of behaviour.
This is an image of a cotton boll, taken about a mile out at low tide on St Annes beach on a piece of driftwood found at the beach. The driftwood is in itself a beautiful reflection of nature and the journey it has been on, which is analogous to cotton, whose own adventures reflect the social, ethical and environmental journey it has been since antiquity. Most recently the discussions surrounding cotton have related to its sustainability and how the cotton is grown, using for example GM or organic seeds and methods. Cotton is also known as ‘white gold’, which reflects the financial power cotton has had over regions and nations. However, when the sun is shining on a cotton boll it can be appreciated that this term may also apply aesthetically to this simple everyday commodity. The pin in the picture has a practical purpose, but also reveals the dominance of cotton in the textile and fashion industry today. This picture was taken using a Samsung WB350F, using the smart mode setting – macro. In Photoshop, the image was cropped and the contrast set to -50.
This year we went on fieldwork to Jinja, in Uganda to work with savings groups and learn about how people utilized their resources to make the best for themselves.For me the most impressive savings group was made of widows who had organized to take care of the children of the community whose parents had passed away. This photo encapsulates how I saw these women - resilient,calm and strong and it reminds me of how amazing people can be even in times of adversity. As a researcher it was a privilage to be let into the lives of these women and learn from them.
This image represents the systematic barriers in education that prevent Black Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) teachers from attaining a leadership position in secondary schools. There is increasing concern that BAME teachers are under-represented in all levels of education in England. Furthermore, they are less likely to be promoted into leadership positions compared to their white counterparts. BAME practitioners appointed in leadership positions in secondary schools are only 3.6%, whilst BAME learner numbers have increased since 2006, 27.9% of learners in secondary schools are now from BAME origins. A diverse leadership team represents the expectation of equality for learners and creates positive stereotypes as opposed to the subordinate roles that are often associated to staff from BAME. The government has introduced schemes to improve the number of BAME which has contributed to an increase in BAME practitioners through a range of training recruitment incentives. This has contributed towards an increase of BAME numbers, however they will be coming into a system that is still restrictive with race based inequalities and structural barriers. Leaders are responsible for the education of staff when dealing with issues based on equity and equality, ensuring inclusivity is a part of a schools’ vision. In order to dismantle the long line of subliminal institutionalized racism, a new outlook focusing on equality and fairness will have to be introduced on a national level on how schools are structured and managed.
This picture was captured during a 7-day university fieldtrip in Berlin, Germany. The Bogenspannerin is located within the park of the Old National Gallery of Berlin; showcasing a bow-drawing sculpture by Ferdinand Lepcke. The image portrays the importance of having a clear aim and objective when undertaking postgraduate research. Just like a bow wielding archer, you cannot hit the bullseye if he or she does not know where to strike. For postgraduate students, it is crucial to have a research goal that is clear and well-focused. As this within itself, guides your research and provides your sense of direction. Finally, and most importantly, one must work and get started in the first place; so take aim, fire and strive for excellence! A submission by Tuan Tran - A MSc Real Estate Asset Management Student at The University of Manchester
The image shows how using computer script a MRI phantom image can be loaded and viewed as rows and columns of numbers. This is what inspired me to pursur a career in clinical bioinformatics, where medical images meets computer codes. It also represents how the digital revolution has accelerated and advancement of medical technology, as well as discovery of new diseases.
This photo shows the management of fashion waste which causes serious air pollution and water pollution. The increasing trend of fast fashion results in the throw-away culture and the problems of fashion waste management. Therefore, how to deal with the massive fashion waste is a growing serious problem not only for retailers and government, but also the consumers have the responsibility to manage fashion waste (Boström and Micheletti, 2016). Currently, there are four main methods to manage fashion waste, which are source reduction, incineration, land fills and recycling. However, in my research, the current recycling methods will critically evaluated and the attitudes of retailers and consumers will be introduced as well.
Born and bred in Manchester of Jamaican parentage, Ruth works at the Ahmed Iqbal Ullah Race Relations Resource Centre, at Manchester Central Library. Here, she is holding an archived photograph of Hulme from the 70s; a place with a known Caribbean community. I had a chance to work with Ruth and her colleagues during a placement. Knowing that I wanted to talk about Caribbean identity and representation in museums, I realised the Centre where Ruth works, was just like the Remember When Institute, an organisation based where I am from, Trinidad and Tobago. Both archive the life stories of Caribbean people as part of their work. My research explores the work of these two archives documenting Caribbean culture within and outside the Caribbean region. In many ways, Ruth represents my connection to home, in Manchester, and the tale of two archives reflects the connection between her and I, and our Caribbean identity.
According to O'Donnell (2010), research is defined as “the creation of new knowledge and the use of existing knowledge in a new and creative way so as to generate new concepts, methodologies and understandings.” In my opinion, on the one hand, researchers should break the shackles of traditional values, try to be curious, innovative and creative. Only in this way, researchers could gain greater achievements, could ‘fly into the sky’ and ‘up where they belong’. On the other hand, researchers should remember where they have begun. In other words, you should not forget the original purpose of your research, you should to explore the nature of your study object. Research is supposed to base on existing theories and the knowledge you already have. ‘Creativity’ does not means imaginary without ground. This photograph has taken in a cave of Casablanca, Morocco in 2016. Just like the picture shows: birds are flying to the sky because they need to survive, and they want to explore the mysterious and beautiful world. However, no matter how far they fly, these birds should fly back to the cave at some point because this place is their home.
Sampela is a village located over half a kilometre from land. It is situated above a Sea grass flat with buildings being built on stilts or platforms made of dead coral. There is a population of around 1700 individuals and two thirds of the population are currently involved in artisanal fishing methods. During an eight-month period within the village the aim was to establish ways in which livelihoods strategies could be diversified away from the current marine dependent livelihoods. Livelihoods which are under threat from multiple stakeholders in the region. Zonation and no take zones designated for tourism and diving limit accessibility to resources, and year on year fish size and abundance is decreasing. With increased pressures on dwindling resources the objective was to find alternative skills within the village that could be used to produce products saleable to tourists. The construction of this shop would enable a communal space for a women’s handicraft collective to meet and keep tools and supplies in. Through identifying and removing the limiting factors to alternative livelihoods strategies a group of 12 women could start earning extra income outside the traditional methods.
I took this photo on my way home after a seminar. The common iron post never draw my attention except for this moment when sunset shed light on it. The reflection on the stairs set me thinking. My views on education were quite fixed. I though education in school context is a must, the western sphere is leading the change, and leadership exists only in the authority. Luckily, my limited postgrad life has taught me a serious and inspiring lesson: education happens every day everywhere, change is led by all the stakeholders in international communities, leadership is mutually challenging. Just like this common iron post, it remains what it is in mostly cloudy days, tough enough. However, light contributes new patterns to its shadow-distance, shape, angle, similarity and intensity. In the end, all is made possible.
I shot this image for an MSc Science Communication project in which I wanted to show scientists at work in a more realistic way than what we regularly see in the media. Quite often, the science shown in print or on television can be contrived stock images or footage and lacking much relation to the real process. During my project, I shadowed a handful of PhD students over several months while they were working in the lab and tried to capture as much of their process as possible. It is my hope that my completed project will be able to show that scientific research isn’t a fantastical process that ‘scientists’ complete in isolation, but a body of work contributed to by a wide variety of people. Pipetting is one of the standard tropes in images of science, and one that I found was impossible to avoid when photographing most of my subjects. Despite this, I chose this image because I feel that it captures the concentration that an experiment demands from its scientist. The subject’s neutral expression, combined with the clutter of the lab suggests that this scene would have occurred regardless of whether or not it was being photographed.
Interleaving is a reinforcing technique that is used widely in the composites industry to improve strength and failure properties of composites without adding too much weight to the composite. Previous research using PPS veils of varying weights as a reinforcement for UD carbon ﬁbre composite show a relationship between the weight of the veil and the Mode I and II energy release rate. Using the same range of veils, this work aims to show a similar relationship with impact damage resistance and tolerance. To test the hypothesis, veils of the extremes in this weight range 7 gm−2 and 40 g m-2 were interleafed throughout UD carbon ﬁbre plies, and then infused and cured into a carbon/epoxy composite. Using miniaturised samples (55 x 89mm), these specimens were then impact tested, c-scanned, and compression after impact tested to test the hypothesis. They were also been compared to standard test which has no veil reinforcement, which was manufactured, prepared, and tested in a simillar manner. Intial impact results indicated a faster rate of loading and a higher absoprtion in initial peak force in the composite interleaved with 40 g m-2 veil than there is in the 7 g m-2. Both veils show an increased absorption of energy in comparison to the same composite without veils embedded. The eﬀects of the impact testing were observed using c-scan. A trend towards the composite interleaved with the 7 g m-2 veil having experienced a greater damage area from impact was observed, reinforcing the impact results. Compression after impact data also corresponds to this trend, suggesting that the composite with the higher weight veil exhibited better impact resistance and impact tolerance than the lower weight veil.
The surface of materials have always been interesting places, where things are a lot different to inside the bulk. Recently, on some semiconductor surfaces, 2D electron gases have been observed. We will show exactly what this is, using an interactive display, and explain some effects that we have observed in them when studied at a synchrotron (SOLEIL, France) using angle-resolved photoemission.
Worm infections affect at least 24% of the world’s population, most of whom live in developing countries due to poor sanitary infrastructure. Increased rural-urban migration in developing countries has led to adoption of new diets with increased consumption of sugary and fatty foods. Therefore people not only face the detrimental challenge of worm infections but also that of diet-related illnesses. We have used a well-developed murine model of Trichuris muris infection in C57BL/6 mice to investigate the effect of diet on the immune-regulation of the mucus barrier response to both chronic and acute helminth infection. In mice fed a “normal” mouse chow, a low dose infection leads to a chronic infection with the generation of Th1 cytokine mediated response. A high dose infection is expelled efficiently from the intestine and is associated with the development of increased production of Th2 cytokines, goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion. Strikingly a low dose infection given to mice fed a high fat diet (HFD, 60% fat) for 16 weeks had a significantly lower worm burden compared to mice fed a low fat diet (LFD, 12% fat) for 12 weeks. We are currently comparing production of Th2 cytokines and diet induced changes in goblet cell numbers, mucin properties and the intestinal microbiome which may be associated with the differences observed. Interestingly, when mice were given a high dose infection there was no difference in resistance status or in the immune response generated in HFD mice compared to LFD mice. Our data suggests that dietary fat may influence resistance status to chronic intestinal nematode infection although the mechanisms underlying this remain to be defined.
Historical linguistics – the investigation of how languages change – relies on the availability of written texts from earlier time periods. In line with recent advances in the digital humanities, the historical linguist now has access to electronic diachronic corpora: large-scale searchable databases compiled of individual historical texts. This allows us to draw solid empirical generalisations on the basis of vast quantities of material in a way that earlier scholars could scarcely have dreamt of. I present the latest findings from my PhD project, which uses the Icelandic Parsed Historical Corpus (Wallenberg et al. 2011) to investigate the diachronic development of a particular syntactic phenomenon in Icelandic. I quantitatively trace the rise of so-called ‘dummy’ subjects in the language, through texts spanning 10 centuries, from the 12th century to the present-day. Ultimately, I show how the historical corpus approach can shed new light on the nature of language change.
Many children and their families in Belfast, Northern Ireland still live in a society divided along ethno-sectarian lines; by barriers both visible and invisible, the extent of which pose still further ideological boundaries. My research will address these challenges by foregrounding playful mapping praxis as part of a multimodal, creative research methodology. My theoretical framework builds on Deleuze and Guattari’s (1983) notion of minor theory and Joe Gerlach’s writings on vernacular mapping (2013; 2014; 2016). Working in a minor key, my project will facilitate participant led, messy research, whereby children along with their parents (or other adults) will explore their personal geographies not as static landscapes, but rather as storied mediums teeming with opportunities, encounters, affects, materialities, voices, and ideas that perhaps cannot be put into words. Specifically, I will ask: in what ways do the participants’ playful, exploratory mappings allow us to better understand how division is maintained, undermined or challenged through the lens of children and their families in ‘post-conflict’ Belfast communities?
Activation of the maternal immune system during pregnancy is a known risk factor for schizophrenia. Injection of the viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) into pregnant rats causes a transient increase in maternal serum interleukin-6 protein levels and induces behavioural deficits in the adult offspring. Previous data shows that poly I:C also causes reduced placenta weight in rats. We aim to investigate the effect of prenatal poly I:C treatment on the expression of the Slc38a family of amino-acid transporters, DNA-methyltransferase-1, and immune genes in the rat placenta. Wistar rats received an injection of 10 mg/kg poly I:C or vehicle at GD15 of pregnancy. For qPCR the dam and pups were sacrificed at GD21, two male/two female pups were selected, and total RNA was extracted from the corresponding placentas. qPCR was performed for the genes Slc38a-1, -2, and -4, Dnmt-1, the Toll-like receptors-3 and -5, and the housekeeping gene Ywhaz.
Examining how entrepreneurial innovation capabilities and their relevant STI policies overcome the challenge- slow state responses towards the rapid changing platform-based businesses
Fats have roles in cardiovascular disease (heart attacks and strokes) but studies to see if they are "inherited" are few. Although not produced from DNA like proteins are, the production and activity of fats, or lipids, are tightly linked to these proteins. Identifying lipids which are tightly linked to DNA may identify novel pathways in cardiovascular disease. By studying the genetics of 250 British families with high blood pressure, lipids will be identified which are "inherited" and may act as biomarkers, or blood tests, for the discovery of the DNA changes indicating a patient's risk of cardiovascular disease. From a pilot study of 31 families, many lipids were found to be heritable, some associating with DNA changes already found patients with fatty plaques in their hearts. We demonstrate for the first time estimates of heritability and DNA associations for 176 lipids.
My doctoral research is about people interacting with technology - but not any people and certainly not any technology. Since late 2016 I have been carrying out anthropological participant observation in a “hard sciences” laboratory in the UK, watching how scientists work with scientific automation hardware and software to conduct their own research. This poster is about some of my preliminary fieldwork findings, having as its central theme the question of “improvisation”. I show that, unlike some narratives about science and automation portray, both of these endeavours are greatly enhanced by the creative capacity shown by scientists in their everyday activities. Modifying, improving, improvising, finding workarounds – these are integral aspects of science and automation.
Intrinsic extraordinary electronic and mechanical properties of graphene have been explored whilst suspending a graphene sheet(s) over a tranche made in an insulated surface. Monolayer graphene have shown potential applications for an ultra-sensitive gas sensor and biosensor in both supported and suspended graphene configurations. The surface charge interaction with an array-based suspended graphene field effect transistor (SGFET) can be explored for an ultra-sensitive detection of gas molecules, biomarkers and pathogens in their physiological conditions. In this poster, we show the device structure and electronic behavior of an array-based monolayer graphene membranes device, which can potentially be used as an ultra-sensitive gas sensor and/or biosensor. Using conventional lithography and standard CVD graphene transfer mechanism, we fabricated and tested a three terminal SGFET device, in which graphene is suspended over an array of micrometers scale cavities with top and back gate metal contacts. The micrometer-sized cavities are made either by drying etching (RIE) of SiO2 layer (or patterning of bulk polymer (SU8)). An array of such devices are fabricated on a 15 mm X 15 mm chip scalable to wafer scale fabrication.
The design of materials to bind and separate specific gases is a major activity at present with major focus on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), but there is also significant work on molecules that can produce carbamates reversibly. The octametallic metallacrown, Cr8F8(O2CtBu)16 , was first reported by Gerbeleu et al1 and was shown to bind to small organic molecules whilst a similar Cr7MF8(O2CtBu)16 (M=Ni, Co) wheel has shown caesium sequestration.2 Combined with the fact that bridging fluorides were used to bind CO2,3 made the starting point for our study. The Cr8 wheel can be made in high yield and it normally crystallises with solvent molecules bound near the central cavity. Recrystallization with 1-bromodecane produces a desolvated version of the compound that is ideal for the studies we are pursuing. Its structure contains an octagon of CrIII sites with each Cr•••Cr edge bridged by a fluoride and two pivalate ligands. The fluorides are alternately slightly above and below the plane formed by the eight Cr sites. Crystals of Cr8 were exposed to CO2, SO2, Cl2, Br2 and I2 ex-situ and in-situ and then characterized through FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, TGA and computational studies. In the case of CO2 binding, gas adsorption and breakthrough experiments were carried.
Prenatal maternal immune activation (mIA) has widely been associated with the susceptibility of offspring to develop psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Previous rodent models of mIA have characterised an elicited maternal cytokine response, altered cytokine balance in the placenta, which may affect function, and behavioural and cognitive changes in the offspring with associated postnatal brain pathology. This project specifically focuses on in utero changes in response to mIA induced by the viral mimetic poly(I:C). The overarching aim of the study is to determine placental changes in response to mIA. We hypothesise that the placenta may be a critical mediator of developmental programming in schizophrenia, predominantly through alterations in its amino acid transporter activity resulting in altered fetal amino acid delivery and compromised fetal development. We show that poly(I:C) administration of GD15 to induce mIA had no significant effect on expression of system L transporter genes in the placenta at GD21. We report a significant, fetal sex-specific reduction in expression of Tpbpa, a marker of the placental junctional zone, at GD21with a reduction observed in females only. However, there were no differences observed in the placental gene expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-⍺ and IFN-γ in GD21 placentas from poly(I:C)-treated dams when compared to placentas from vehicle-treated control dams The findings relating to Tpbpa expression suggest a potential susceptibility in female fetuses to impaired junctional zone morphological development and junctional zone function in response to mIA, a finding also reported in models of fetal growth restriction. Collectively, this study highlights that there are placental gene-specific responses to poly (I:C) treatment and that these are sustained several days after poly (I:C) treatment, which may impact on placental function.
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https://vimeo.com/185239346 (password vimeo link: Lana17/08/90!)
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6433_Poster MK Nov v7.pdf
6370_PSRS 2017 poster.pdf
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6479_Computer use in older adults_poster_Gemma Stringer_2017.pdf
6484_Poster inclusion in strategy work.pdf
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6557_post - Tatiana.pdf
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Postgraduate Summer Research showcase Poster.pdf
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